Table 1

A summary of studies on the prevalence of EILO in athletes and adolescents

Prevalence of EILO in athletes
AuthorsYearPopulationDesignFindingsDiagnostic methodComments
Morris et al 5 1999105 patients with exertional dyspnoea at an army clinicCross-sectional
12% had VCDLaryngoscopy before and after exerciseSelected population
Rundell and Spiering29 2003370
Olympic-level athletes
30% had EIB
5% had stridor (of whom 52% had EIB)
AuscultationOlympic-level athletes
Hanks et al30 2012148 athletes referred for exertional dyspnoeaRetrospective chart review52% EIB
14% Asthma
70% VCD
31% EIB + VCD
Laryngoscopy after exerciseSelected population
Nielsen et al 4 201391 athletes referred for CLE testing. 88 testedRetrospective chart review35% had EILO
43% had Asthma
Continuous laryngoscopy during exerciseHighly selected population
Turmel et al 31 2015352 Athletes,
42 suspected EILO, 12 examined
12 tested and 12 confirmed EILOLaryngoscopy during eucapnic voluntary hyperventilationSelected population, heterogenous evaluation
Heffler et al 32 201537 healthy elite rowers without exertional dyspnoeaCross-sectional
27% had EIB, 43% had EILO,
16% both
Flow volume loop assessment during eucapnic voluntary hyperventilationVit D lower in those with EILO
Irewall et al 6 *202189 invited elite cross-country skiersCross-sectional Prospective27% had EILO
38% had asthma (of whom 29% had EILO)
Continuous laryngoscopy during exerciseWell-designed. Risk of underestimated results
Prevalence of EILO in adolescents
Christensen et al 2 2011556 invited. 150 tested for AHR, 17.6% tested for EILOCross-sectional
AHR in 28% of invited.
EILO in 42% of tested, 7.6% of total invited
Six persons had both AHR and EILO
Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise
Johansson et al 1 20153838 invited, 2309 responded, symptoms in 330 85 with and 42 without symptoms testedCross-sectional
11% had EILO
40% had EIB
Estimated EILO prevalence 5.7%. Similar in boys and girls
Continuous laryngoscopy during exerciseWell-designed
Ersson et al 3 *2020549 first-year high-school athletes invited

42 with and 34 without dyspnoea tested
EIB in 8/41 with and 16/57 without dyspnoea
EILO in 5/34 with and 3/42 without dyspnoea
Estimated prevalence of EILO 8.1%
Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (on bike)Self- reported symptoms are week indicators for both EIB and EILO
  • *Studies published after conducting the systematic search.

  • AHR, airway hyper-responsiveness; CLE, continuous laryngoscopy exercise; EIB, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction; EILO, exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction; VCD, vocal cord dysfunction.