Table 2

Factors associated with spine and upper limb OA in Olympians

Lumbar spine OACervical spine OAShoulder OA
PrevalenceaOR (95% CI)PrevalenceaOR (95% CI)PrevalenceaOR (95% CI)
n (%)Adjusted a, s, b, in (%)Adjusted a, s, b, in (%)Adjusted a, s, b, i
Age
 20–3935/1194 (2.93)1.00 (reference)6/1194 (0.50)1.00 (reference)15/1194 (1.26)1.00 (reference)
 40–5989/1359 (6.55)2.32 (1.53 to 3.52)44/1359 (3.24)6.80 (2.82 to 16.37)35/1359 (2.58)1.31 (0.75 to 2.31)
>6052/580 (8.97)4.10 (2.54 to 6.63)22/580 (3.79)11.87 (4.59 to 30.70)24/580 (4.14)1.63 (0.85 to 3.13)
Sex
 Male90/1840 (4.89)1.00 (reference)26/1840 (1.41)1.00 (reference)44/1840 (2.39)1.00 (reference)
 Female100/1488 (6.72)1.91 (1.36 to 2.70)50/1488 (3.36)3.35 (1.88 to 5.99)35/1488 (2.35)1.30 (0.79 to 2.16)
BMI
 Normal86/1774 (4.85)1.00 (reference)41/1774 (2.31)1.00 (reference)33/1774 (1.86)1.00 (reference)
 Overweight69/1063 (6.49)1.61 (1.11 to 2.32)24/1063 (2.26)1.14 (0.63 to 2.04)30/1063 (2.82)1.34 (0.77 to 2.31)
 Obese25/342 (7.31)1.53 (0.91 to 2.59)7/342 (2.05)0.86 (0.34 to 2.17)14/342 (4.09)1.80 (0.89 to 3.65)
Injury
 No102/2815 (3.62)1.00 (reference)49/3209 (1.53)1.00 (reference)44/2827 (1.56)1.00 (reference)
 Yes89/542 (16.42)5.59 (4.01 to 7.78)28/148 (18.92)17.83 (1.02 to 31.14)35/530 (6.60)4.91 (3.03 to 7.96)
 Recurrent injury78/355 (21.97)3.54 (1.85 to 6.81)1/6 (16.7)32/259 (12.36)5.63 (2.27 to 13.98)
Comorbidities
 None80/2379 (3.36)1.00 (reference)34/2379 (1.43)1.00 (reference)27/2379 (1.13)1.00 (reference)
 164/696 (9.20)2.57 (1.76 to 3.75)24/696 (3.45)1.91 (1.05 to 3.48)29/696 (4.17)2.92 (1.64 to 5.18)
 2 or more47/282 (16.67)4.01 (2.57 to 6.27)19/282 (6.74)3.90 (1.96 to 7.76)23/282 (8.16)5.53 (2.95 to 10.40)
  • Values are presented as count (n) and prevalence (%). aOR-adjusted a, s, b, i=OR adjusted for covariates age, sex, BMI and injury. Bold denotes statistical significance. – indicates analysis not performed due to small number of events (<5).

  • BMI, body mass index; OA, osteoarthritis.