Table 4

Odds of spine and upper limb OA for Olympians versus a general population control

Lumbar spine OAOlympians vs controlsCervical spine OAOlympians vs controlsShoulder OAOlympians vs controls
OlympiansControlsOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)OlympiansControlsOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)OlympiansControlsOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
n (%)n (%)CrudeAdjusted a, s, bAdjusted a, s, b, in (%)n (%)CrudeAdjusted a, s, bAdjusted a, s, b, in (%)n (%)CrudeAdjusted a, s, bAdjusted a, s, b, i
OA191 (5.69)66 (3.80)1.53 (1.15 to 2.03)1.33 (0.98 to 1.80)1.12 (0.82 to 1.53)77 (2.29)25 (1.44)1.61 (1.2 to 2.53)1.51 (0.93 to 2.46)1.32 (0.80 to 2.17)79 (2.35)22 (1.27)1.88 (1.17 to 3.02)1.56 (0.95 to 2.58)1.45 (0.88 to 2.40)
Age
 20–3935 (2.93)10 (1.28)2.31 (1.14 to 4.70)3.09 (1.42 to 6.72)2.38 (1.08 to 5.26)6 (0.50)2 (0.26)15 (1.26)5 (0.64)1.96 (0.71 to 5.42)1.96 (0.71 to 5.46)1.62 (0.57 to 4.54)
 40–5989 (6.55)32 (4.95)1.34 (0.89 to 2.04)1.35 (0.88 to 2.07)1.11 (0.71 to 1.72)44 (3.24)15 (2.32)1.41 (0.78 to 2.55)1.54 (0.84 to 2.82)1.38 (0.73 to 2.64)35 (2.58)9 (1.39)1.87 (0.89 to 3.92)1.77 (0.84 to 3.74)1.67 (0.79 to 3.53)
>6052 (8.97)23 (10.84)0.81 (0.48 to 1.36)0.77 (0.45 to 1.35)0.72 (0.41 to 1.27)22 (3.79)8 (3.77)1.01 (0.44 to 2.29)1.18 (0.48 to 2.89)1.12 (0.45 to 2.75)24 (4.14)7 (3.30)1.26 (0.54 to 2.98)1.38 (0.56 to 3.38)1.39 (0.57 to 3.42)
Sex
 Male90 (4.89)20 (2.76)1.81 (1.10 to 2.96)1.36 (0.81 to 2.29)1.23 (0.73 to 2.08)26 (1.41)10 (1.38)1.02 (0.49 to 2.13)0.69 (0.32 to 1.47)0.60 (0.27 to 1.31)44 (2.39)11 (1.52)1.59 (0.81 to 3.09)1.33 (0.67 to 2.63)1.33 (0.67 to 2.65)
 Female100 (6.72)46 (4.61)1.49 (1.04 to 2.13)1.31 (0.89 to 1.93)1.09 (0.74 to 1.61)50 (3.36)15 (1.50)2.28 (1.27 to 4.08)2.28 (1.22 to 4.29)2.02 (1.06 to 3.87)35 (2.35)11 (1.10)2.16 (1.09 to 4.28)2.07 (1.00 to 4.30)1.89 (0.90 to 3.95)
BMI
 Normal86 (4.85)36 (3.67)1.34 (0.90 to 1.99)1.14 (0.75 to 1.73)0.90 (0.58 to 1.38)41 (2.31)12 (1.22)1.91 (1.00 to 3.65)1.72 (0.89 to 3.34)1.46 (0.74 to 2.89)33 (1.86)11 (1.12)1.55 (0.77 to 3.09)1.55 (0.75 to 3.20)1.54 (0.74 to 3.18)
 Overweight69 (6.49)19 (4.16)1.60 (0.95 to 2.69)1.54 (0.89 to 2.65)1.41 (0.81 to 2.44)24 (2.26)7 (1.53)1.48 (0.64 to 3.47)1.45 (0.60 to 3.50)1.15 (0.47 to 2.84)30 (2.82)7 (1.53)2.11 (0.87 to 5.14)1.65 (0.70 to 3.88)1.54 (0.65 to 3.61)
 Obese25 (7.31)10 (5.26)1.42 (0.67 to 3.02)1.46 (0.64 to 3.31)1.03 (0.44 to 2.41)7 (2.05)5 (2.63)0.77 (0.24 to 2.47)0.77 (0.22 to 2.78)0.98 (0.25 to 3.91)14 (4.09)4 (2.11)
Injury89 (16.42)15 (9.43)1.89 (1.06 to 3.36)1.67 (0.91 to 3.05)28 (18.92)5 (9.62)2.19 (0.80 to 6.02)1.99 (0.66 to 6.02)35 (6.60)5 (2.25)3.07 (1.19 to 7.94)2.64 (1.01 to 6.90)
Recurrent injury78 (21.97)17 (17.17)1.36 (0.76 to 2.42)1.25 (0.68 to 2.29)1 (16.7)0 (0)32 (12.36)9 (9.18)1.39 (0.64 to 3.04)1.11 (0.50 to 2.50)
Comorbidities
 None80 (3.36)33 (2.61)1.30 (0.86 to 1.96)1.17 (0.75 to 1.82)0.94 (0.60 to 1.46)34 (1.43)10 (0.79)1.82 (0.89 to 3.69)2.06 (0.93 to 4.57)1.63 (0.71 to 3.77)27 (1.13)8 (0.63)1.80 (0.82 to 3.98)1.41 (0.62 to 3.19)1.37 (0.61 to 3.11)
 164 (9.20)20 (5.95)1.60 (0.95 to 2.69)1.35 (0.78 to 2.34)1.21 (0.69 to 2.12)24 (3.45)10 (2.98)1.16 (0.55 to 2.46)0.96 (0.44 to 2.10)0.89 (0.40 to 1.97)29 (4.17)10 (2.98)1.42 (0.68 to 2.94)1.26 (0.59 to 2.70)1.10 (0.51 to 2.37)
 2 or more47 (16.67)13 (9.56)1.89 (0.99 to 3.63)1.74 (0.84 to 3.59)1.58 (0.75 to 3.37)19 (6.74)5 (3.68)1.89 (0.69 to 5.18)1.69 (0.58 to 4.90)1.72 (0.58 to 5.04)23 (8.16)4 (2.94)
  • Values are presented as count (n) and prevalence (%), with comparisons made between Olympians and controls. Controls are the reference value (1.00). OR-adjusted a, s, b=ORs adjusted for covariates age, sex and BMI. OR-adjusted a, s, b, i=ORs are adjusted for age, sex, BMI and injury. Bold denotes statistical significance. – indicates analysis not performed due to small number of events (<5).

  • BMI, body mass index; OA, osteoarthritis.