Table 3

Factors associated with spine and upper limb pain in Olympians

Lumbar spine painCervical spine painShoulder pain
PrevalenceaOR (95% CI)PrevalenceaOR (95% CI)PrevalenceaOR (95% CI)
n (%)Adjusted a, s, b, in (%)Adjusted a, s, b, in (%)Adjusted a, s, b, i
Age
 20–39234/1194 (19.6)1.00 (reference)81/1194 (6.78)1.00 (reference)84/1194 (7.04)1.00 (reference)
 40–59293/1359 (21.56)1.09 (0.88 to 1.34)103/1359 (7.58)1.05 (0.77 to 1.46)113/1359 (8.31)1.20 (0.88 to 1.63)
>6083/580 (14.31)0.56 (0.41 to 0.77)34/580 (5.86)0.84 (0.53 to 1.33)37/580 (6.38)0.96 (0.62 to 1.49)
Sex
 Male358/1840 (19.46)1.00 (reference)9/1840 (5.38)1.00 (reference)124/1840 (6.74)1.00 (reference)
 Female285/1488 (19.15)0.94 (0.77 to 1.15)130/1488 (8.74)1.61 (1.17 to 2.21)121/1488 (8.13)1.25 (0.93 to 1.68)
BMI
 Normal315/1774 (17.76)1.00 (reference)129/1774 (7.27)1.00 (reference)121/1774 (6.82)1.00 (reference)
 Overweight214/1063 (20.13)1.24 (1.00 to 1.55)65/1063 (6.11)1.02 (0.72 to 1.45)77/1063 (7.24)1.12 (0.81 to 1.57)
 Obese76/342 (22.22)1.40 (1.02 to 1.92)26/342 (7.60)1.25 (0.77 to 2.04)37/342 (10.82)1.73 (1.12 to 2.68)
Injury
 No400/2815 (14.21)1.00 (reference)178/3209 (5.55)1.00 (reference)126/2827 (4.46)1.00 (reference)
 Yes248/542 (45.76)4.90 (3.97 to 6.05)54/148 (36.49)9.41 (6.32 to 14.01)120/530 (22.64)6.04 (4.55 to 8.03)
 Recurrent injury196/355 (55.21)3.31 (2.21 to 4.96)2/6 (33.3)84/259 (32.43)2.56 (1.64 to 3.98)
Comorbidities
 None377/2379 (15.85)1.00 (reference)130/2379 (5.46)1.00 (reference)136/2379 (5.72)1.00 (reference)
 1185/696 (26.58)2.09 (1.67 to 2.62)70/696 (10.06)1.95 (1.38 to 2.73)74/696 (10.63)1.77 (1.28 to 2.45)
 2 or more86/282 (30.5)2.23 (1.61 to 3.10)32/282 (11.35)2.63 (1.64 to 4.22)36/282 (12.77)2.16 (1.38 to 3.37)
  • Values are presented as count (n) and prevalence (%). aOR-adjusted a, s, b, i=OR adjusted for covariates age, sex, BMI and injury. Bold denotes statistical significance. – indicates analysis not performed due to small number of events (<5).

  • BMI, body mass index.