Table 5

Odds of spine and upper limb pain for Olympians versus a general population control

Lumbar spine painOlympians vs controlsCervical spine painOlympians vs controlsShoulder painOlympians vs controls
OlympiansControlsOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)OlympiansControlsOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)OlympiansControlsOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
n (%)n (%)CrudeAdjusted a, s, bAdjusted a, s, b, in (%)n (%)CrudeAdjusted a, s, bAdjusted a, s, b, in (%)n (%)CrudeAdjusted a, s, bAdjusted a, s, b, i
Pain648 (19.30)214 (12.33)1.70 (1.44 to 2.01)1.65 (1.39 to 1.97)1.44 (1.20 to 1.73)232 (6.91)97 (5.59)1.25 (0.98 to 1.60)1.34 (1.03 to 1.75)1.26 (0.97 to 1.65)246 (7.33)142 (8.18)0.89 (0.72 to 1.10)0.87 (0.69 to 1.09)0.77 (0.61 to 0.98)
Age
 20–39234 (19.60)83 (10.70)2.04 (1.56 to 2.66)2.03 (1.55 to 2.67)1.72 (1.29 to 2.29)81 (6.78)43 (5.54)1.24 (0.85 to 1.82)1.28 (0.87 to 1.89)1.21 (0.81 to 1.80)84 (7.04)54 (6.96)1.01 (0.71 to 1.44)1.03 (0.72 to 1.48)0.86 (0.59 to 1.25)
 40–59293 (21.56)86 (13.31)1.79 (1.38 to 2.32)1.76 (1.34 to 2.31)1.58 (1.20 to 2.09)103 (7.58)41 (6.35)1.21 (0.83 to 1.76)1.30 (0.88 to 1.93)1.22 (0.81 to 1.83)113 (8.31)65 (10.06)0.81 (0.59 to 1.12)0.81 (0.58 to 1.13)0.73 (0.52 to 1.02)
>6083 (14.31)32 (15.09)0.94 (0.60 to 1.46)0.64 (0.39 to 1.03)0.57 (0.35 to 0.93)34 (5.86)9 (4.25)1.40 (0.66 to 2.98)1.57 (0.66 to 3.73)1.49 (0.62 to 3.58)37 (6.38)17 (8.02)0.78 (0.43 to 1.42)0.70 (0.37 to 1.35)0.72 (0.37 to 1.41)
Sex
 Male358 (19.46)99 (13.69)1.52 (1.20 to 1.94)1.48 (1.15 to 1.91)1.33 (1.03 to 1.73)9 (5.38)30 (4.15)1.31 (0.86 to 1.99)1.31 (0.84 to 2.05)1.28 (0.81 to 2.01)124 (6.74)61 (8.44)0.78 (0.57 to 1.08)0.72 (0.52 to 1.01)0.71 (0.51 to 1.00)
 Female285 (19.15)114 (11.42)1.84 (1.45 to 2.32)1.83 (1.43 to 2.34)1.55 (1.20 to 2.00)130 (8.74)67 (6.71)1.33 (0.98 to 1.81)1.34 (0.97 to 1.86)1.25 (0.90 to 1.75)121 (8.13)81 (8.12)1.00 (0.75 to 1.34)1.01 (0.74 to 1.37)0.79 (0.57 to 1.10)
BMI
 Normal315 (17.76)107 (10.91)1.76 (1.39 to 2.23)1.77 (1.39 to 2.25)1.51 (1.18 to 1.94)129 (7.27)56 (5.71)1.29 (0.94 to 1.79)1.30 (0.93 to 1.81)1.22 (0.87 to 1.72)121 (6.82)84 (8.56)0.78 (0.58 to 1.04)0.76 (0.56 to 1.02)0.69 (0.51 to 0.94)
 Overweight214 (20.13)73 (15.97)1.33 (0.99 to 1.78)1.33 (0.98 to 1.80)1.19 (0.87 to 1.63)65 (6.11)22 (4.81)1.29 (0.78 to 2.11)1.39 (0.83 to 2.35)1.26 (0.74 to 2.15)77 (7.24)32 (7.00)1.03 (0.68 to 1.59)1.10 (0.71 to 1.72)0.97 (0.62 to 1.52)
 Obese76 (22.22)21 (11.05)2.30 (1.37 to 3.87)2.60 (1.49 to 4.55)2.01 (1.12 to 3.60)26 (7.60)9 (4.74)1.65 (0.76 to 3.61)1.86 (0.79 to 4.40)2.81 (1.04 to 7.59)37 (10.82)17 (8.95)1.23 (0.67 to 2.26)1.19 (0.62 to 2.28)0.99 (0.51 to 1.93)
Injury248 (45.76)57 (35.85)1.51 (1.05 to 2.18)1.45 (0.99 to 2.12)54 (36.49)12 (23.08)1.91 (0.93 to 3.96)1.94 (0.87 to 4.34)120 (22.64)56 (25.23)0.87 (0.60 to 1.25)0.86 (0.59 to 1.26)
Recurrent injury196 (55.21)45 (45.45)1.48 (0.95 to 2.31)1.41 (0.89 to 2.26)2 (33.30)0 (0)84 (32.43)34 (34.69)0.90 (0.55 to 1.48)0.81 (0.48 to 1.35)
Comorbidities
 None377 (15.85)124 (9.82)1.73 (1.39 to 2.15)1.77 (1.41 to 2.22)1.51 (1.19 to 1.91)129 (7.27)60 (4.75)1.16 (0.84 to 1.59)1.22 (0.87 to 1.71)1.12 (0.79 to 1.59)136 (5.72)88 (6.97)0.81 (0.61 to 1.07)0.82 (0.61 to 1.10)0.74 (0.55 to 1.01)
 1185 (26.58)56 (16.67)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)1.78 (1.25 to 2.52)1.62 (1.12 to 2.32)65 (6.11)22 (6.55)1.60 (0.97 to 2.62)1.67 (0.99 to 2.83)1.62 (0.94 to 2.77)74 (10.63)33 (9.82)1.09 (0.71 to 1.68)1.03 (0.66 to 1.63)0.89 (0.56 to 1.42)
 2 or more86 (30.50)34 (25.0)1.32 (0.83 to 2.09)1.09 (0.65 to 1.82)0.94 (0.55 to 1.62)26 (7.60)15 (11.03)1.03 (0.54 to 1.98)1.43 (0.68 to 2.99)1.47 (0.69 to 3.12)36 (12.77)21 (15.44)0.80 (0.45 to 1.43)0.76 (0.39 to 1.46)0.58 (0.29 to 1.15)
  • Values are presented as count (n) and prevalence (%), with comparisons made between Olympians and controls. Controls are the reference value (1.00). OR-adjusted a, s, b=ORs adjusted for covariates age, sex and BMI. OR-adjusted a, s, b, i=ORs are adjusted for age, sex, BMI and injury. Bold denotes statistical significance. – indicates analysis not performed due to small number of events (<5).

  • BMI, body mass index.