Table 4

Adjusted mean differences in KOOS-Sport/Rec and KOOS-QOL between participants with evidence of ACL healing on MRI and the other three groups, per follow-up time

Follow-upNon-healed vs healedDelayed ACLR vs healedEarly ACLR vs healed
KOOS Sport/Rec2 years−25.1 (−41.5, –8.6)−24.9 (−39.6, –10.2)−17.4 (−30.7, –4.1)
5 years−12.4 (−30.7, 5.9)−10.1 (−24.7, 4.4)−10.3 (−24.3, 3.6)
KOOS QOL2 years−27.5 (−41.8, −13.2)−18.1 (−30.8, –5.4)−11.4 (−22.9, –0.0)
5 years−25.3 (−41.2, −9.4)−7.9 (−20.5, 4.7)−7.1 (−19.1, 4.9)
  • Each model includes the exposure (healing/treatment status at 1, 2 and 5 years), time point (1, 2 or 5 years), their interaction, baseline value of the KOOS subscale and potential confounders (age, sex, smoking status).

  • ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ACLR, ACL reconstruction; KOOS, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; QOL, quality of life; Sport/Rec, patient-reported sport and recreational function.