Table 1

Summary of results of the intervention costs of fall prevention exercise programs for older adults living in the community

Author/country (income)Intervention nameDuration/frequency (range)Supervision/supervised sessions, n, (who delivered)Location (who with)US$*/wk/person (median across studies, IQR (range))
Balance/functional
Davis et al 29, Canada (HI)†; Davis et al 37, Canada (HI)† Robertson et al 34 (1), New Zealand (HI)*; Robertson et al 36 (2), New Zealand (HI)†; Robertson et al 35 (3), New Zealand (HI)†; Hektoen et al 44, Norway (HI)†; Church et al 49, Australia (HI)‡; Church et al 39, Australia (HI)‡; Deverall et al 41, New Zealand (HI)‡; Frick et al 43, USA (HI)‡, Mori et al 47, USA (HI)‡Otago exercise programme52 wks
3 times/wk plus walking 2–3 times/wk
Unsupervised/4–5 (health professional or trained exercise leader)Home (individual)US$12, US$8 to US$17 (min: US$7, max: US$83)
Deverall et al 41, New Zealand (HI)‡Peer-led exercise programme52 wks
1 time/wk
Supervised/52 (volunteer)Community venue (group size NR)US$6
Church et al 49, Australia (HI)‡; Church et al 39, Australia (HI)‡Group-based exercise26 wks
3 times/wk
Mixed/52 (personnel NR)Community venue (group size NR): 2 times/wk
Home (individual): 1 time/wk
US$40
McLean et al 45, Australia (HI)‡‘NoFalls’ programme15 wks
7 times/wk
Mixed/15 (health professional)Community venue (group 15): 1 time/wk
Home (individual): 6 times/wk
US$3
Multicomponent
Patil et al 33, Finland (HI)†Supervised group training and home exercise programme104 wks
4–5 times/wk
Mixed/156 (health professional)Community venue (group 10–20): 2 times/wk (Year 1), 1 time/wk (Year 2)
Home (individual): 3 times/k
US$0.40
Li et al 32, USA (HI)†Multimodal exercise24 wks
2 times/wk
Supervised/48 (trained exercise leader)Community venue (group 9–21)US$44
Deverall et al 41, New Zealand (HI)‡Commercially provided exercise programme52 wks
Frequency NR
NRCommunity venue (group size NR)US$23
Tai chi
Li et al 32, USA (HI)†; Day et al 40, Australia (HI)‡; Carande-Kulis et al 38, USA (HI)‡; Church et al 49, Australia (HI)‡, Church et al 39, Australia (HI)‡Tai chi classes (including ‘Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance’)24–26 wks
2–3 times/wk
Supervised/48–78 (trained exercise leader)Community venue (group 9–12)US$45, US$31–50 (min: US$2, max: US$53)
Frick et al 43, USA (HI)‡; Li et al 54, USA (HI)§Group and home tai chi15–48 wks
7 times/wk
Mixed/30–96 (trained exercise leader)Community venue (group size NR): 2 times/wk
Home (individual): 5 times/wk
US$8 (min: US$2, max: US$14)
Exercise type not specified
Farag,42 (2), Australia (HI)‡Public health programmeNRNRNRUS$1184¶ (mean cost/participant for the entire programme)
Ontario Medical Advisory Secretariat,46, Canada (HI)‡Long-term exercise programme>24 wks
Frequency NR
NRNRUS$3
  • This table only includes studies where the intervention was powered for falls and had a significant impact on falls. Results for model-based, trial-based and costing studies are presented together.

  • Iliffe et al 52 (costing study) was not powered for falls and they did not find an effect on falls and therefore results are not presented in this table (balance and functional). Dangour et al 51 (costing study) did not find an effect on falls and therefore results are not presented in this table (balance and functional). Kemmler et al 53 (costing study) did not find an effect on falls and therefore results are not presented in this table (multicomponent). Farag et al 42 (1) (trial-based study) did not find an effect on falls and therefore results are not presented in this table (multicomponent). Haas31 (trial-based study) did not find an effect on falls and therefore results are not presented in this table (tai chi). Mulrow et al 58 (costing study) was not presented in this table as the intervention was not aimed to increase falls and did not impact on falls. Church et al 39 49 used the same cost estimates and therefore only one estimate is represented in this table. Mori et al 47 and Carande-Kulis et al 38 used the same cost estimates and therefore only one estimate is represented in this table. Buchner et al 50 did not present the appropriate data required to calculate costs and has therefore been omitted from this table (multiple exercise types).

  • *In 2020 US$.

  • †Indicates trial-based economic evaluation.

  • ‡Indicates model-based economic evaluation.

  • §Indicates costing study.

  • ¶Where cost/participant/week was not available, the reported mean cost/participant for the entire programme has been indicated.

  • **Number of participants engaging in the intervention not reported therefore it was not possible to calculate the cost per person per week.

  • NR, not reported; wk(s), week(s).