Table 2

Summary of results of the trial and model-based economic evaluations investigating fall prevention exercise programs in older adults living in aged care facilities

Author/country (income)/campaignPerspective/horizonPopulationExercise description*US$†/QALY, 95% CI or UIUS$†/fall prevented, 95% CI or UILevel of certainty‡
Hewitt et al 10,
Strength and balance exercise programme
Healthcare system
12 months
  • Care facilities residents

  • 65% female

Strength and balance exercises
Progressive training: 2 days/wk for 60 min/session over 26 wks
Maintenance phase: 30 /min session over 26 wks
NRUS$22/fall prevented (95% CI −380 to 418)
US$56/injurious fall avoided (UI NR)
3D (tai chi)
Wilson et al 56,
Tai chi
12 months
  • Care facilities residents with average fall risk

  • % female: NR

Tai chi
2 days/wk for 60 min/session over 52 wks
(net cost-saving: US$1834)
  • Dominant indicates that the intervention was less costly and more effective.

  • *Salient details only; a full description of each intervention is available in online supplemental table 1

  • †In 2020 US

  • ‡Overall judgement of certainty of each economic model for WHO decision-making according to a GRADE style rating (see online supplemental material 12 for more details).

  • NR, not reported; QALY, quality-adjusted life year; UI, uncertainty interval; wk(s), week(s).