Table 2

Intervention-related effect moderators analysed as covariates in multivariate meta-regression models

Covariates in the multivariate modelRegression coefficient (95% CI)p-valueI2 (%)R2 (%)
Model 18413.9
 Intercept334 (−268 to 937)0.277
 Intervention duration (weeks) −11.2 (−21.3 to −1.1) 0.030
 Set goal548 (−46 to 1142)0.071
 Counselling*1025 (321 to 1730) 0.004
 Diary521 (−566 to 1608)0.348
 Print materials235 (−611 to 1081)0.586
 Website−149 (−910 to 612)0.701
 Mobile app−150 (−1170 to 872)0.774
 Text messages498 (−322 to 1730)0.234
 Incentives524 (−250 to 1298)0.185
Model 28417.6
 Intercept612 (224 to 1000) 0.002
 Intervention duration (weeks)−9.9 (−19.0 to −0.7) 0.035
 Set goal600 (44 to 1155) 0.034
 Counselling*795 (254 to 1336) 0.004
Model 38416.2
 Intercept708 (320 to 196) <0.001
 Intervention duration (weeks)−12.4 (−22.2 to −2.5) 0.014
 Set goal564 (−14 to 1143)0.056
 Phone/video counselling1129 (303 to 1954) 0.007
 Group counselling745 (−188 to 1677)0.118
 Email counselling518 (−381 to 1417)0.259
 In-person counselling72 (−741 to 885)0.862
  • The models included all 78 contrasts. Intervention duration entered the models as a continuous variable. Its regression coefficient expresses an average change in the mean difference between intervention groups' and active controls' daily step count for a 1-week increase in the intervention duration. All other covariates entered the models as binary variables (0 = not present, 1 = present). Their regression coefficients express a change in the mean difference between intervention groups’ and active controls’ daily step count associated with the presence of the component. Bold numbers correspond to statistically significant p-values.

  • *The term ‘counselling’ comprises all forms of human counselling, that is, in-person, phone/video, group and email counselling.