Table 2

Intervention-related effect moderators analysed as covariates in multivariate meta-regression models

 Covariates in the multivariate model Regression coefficient (95% CI) p-value I2 (%) R2 (%) Model 1 84 13.9 Intercept 334 (−268 to 937) 0.277 Intervention duration (weeks) −11.2 (−21.3 to −1.1) 0.030 Set goal 548 (−46 to 1142) 0.071 Counselling* 1025 (321 to 1730) 0.004 Diary 521 (−566 to 1608) 0.348 Print materials 235 (−611 to 1081) 0.586 Website −149 (−910 to 612) 0.701 Mobile app −150 (−1170 to 872) 0.774 Text messages 498 (−322 to 1730) 0.234 Incentives 524 (−250 to 1298) 0.185 Model 2 84 17.6 Intercept 612 (224 to 1000) 0.002 Intervention duration (weeks) −9.9 (−19.0 to −0.7) 0.035 Set goal 600 (44 to 1155) 0.034 Counselling* 795 (254 to 1336) 0.004 Model 3 84 16.2 Intercept 708 (320 to 196) <0.001 Intervention duration (weeks) −12.4 (−22.2 to −2.5) 0.014 Set goal 564 (−14 to 1143) 0.056 Phone/video counselling 1129 (303 to 1954) 0.007 Group counselling 745 (−188 to 1677) 0.118 Email counselling 518 (−381 to 1417) 0.259 In-person counselling 72 (−741 to 885) 0.862
• The models included all 78 contrasts. Intervention duration entered the models as a continuous variable. Its regression coefficient expresses an average change in the mean difference between intervention groups' and active controls' daily step count for a 1-week increase in the intervention duration. All other covariates entered the models as binary variables (0 = not present, 1 = present). Their regression coefficients express a change in the mean difference between intervention groups’ and active controls’ daily step count associated with the presence of the component. Bold numbers correspond to statistically significant p-values.

• *The term ‘counselling’ comprises all forms of human counselling, that is, in-person, phone/video, group and email counselling.