Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyYearPopulationTotal no of trialsTotal no of participantsMeta-analysisAge, yearsMale sex, %*RoB toolIncluded in data synthesis†
 Bednarski and Kiwerski25 2019ACLR13789NoNR70Not assessedNo
 Cabrera26 et al 2014ACLR10573YesMean range 22–3469CochraneYes
 Raynor27 et al 2005ACLR7551YesMean approx. 2768Not assessedNo
Open kinetic chain exercises
 Glass30 et al 2010ACL injury or ACLR6278NoRange 15–6074PEDroNo
 Jewiss28 et al 2017ACLR7229YesMean approx. 2981TESTEXYes
 Perriman29 et al 2018ACLR10485YesMean approx. 3076PEDroYes
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
 Hauger31 et al 2018ACLR11425YesRange 13–5578PEDroYes
 Kim32 et al 2010ACLR8198NoNR64PEDroYes
Whole body vibration
 Seixas33 et al 2020ACLR10304NoMean approx. 2560PEDro, CochraneYes
 Qiu34 et al 2021ACLR8264NoRange 18–4556PEDroYes
Psychological interventions
 Coronado35 et al 2018ACLR4210NoRange 15–5370PEDroYes
Preoperative rehabilitation
 Carter36 et al 2020ACL injury undergoing ACLR3122NoRange 17–5095Cochrane 2.0Yes
Knee bracing
 Yang37 et al 2019ACLR7440YesMean range 25–4064CochraneYes
Supplement use
 Greif38 et al 2020ACLR10292NoRange 18–5078CochraneYes
Blood flow restriction training
 Charles39 et al 2020ACLR498NoRange 18–5256Not assessedYes
Structured in-person rehabilitation
 Gamble40 et al 2021ACLR6353NoMean range 21–3463PEDroYes
Neuromuscular control exercises
 Arumugam41 et al 2021ACLR9386NoMean range 23–3570Cochrane 2.0Yes
Multiple rehabilitation interventions‡
 Gatewood42 et al 2017ACLR22§1254§NoMean range 22–45NRPEDroYes
 Kruse44 et al 2012ACLR291540NoNRNRCONSORT 2010No
 Risberg43 et al 2004ACL injury or ACLR33NRNoNRNRNarrativeYes
 Wright44–46 et al2008ACLR54NRNoNRNRNarrativeNo
  • *Approximate percentage as not all original trials reported proportion of male and female participants.

  • †Systematic reviews with a high RoB across all four ROBIS domains were excluded from data synthesis.

  • ‡For the reviews including multiple rehabilitation interventions, we extracted data from specific interventions separately to synthesise these with the other reviews evaluating the same interventions.

  • §Does not include three studies (125 participants) evaluating surface electromyography (EMG) in >30-year-old participants following meniscal surgery.

  • ¶Includes 2× papers (part 1 and part 2 with same methods but different interventions).

  • ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ACLR, ACL reconstruction; CONSORT, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials; NR, not reported; RoB, risk of bias; ROBIS, Risk of Bias In Systematic reviews.