Table 1

Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

StudySource of study population/study periodSample sizeAge mean (SD) (years)Sex (male/female)Incidence rate of postoperative infectionTypes of infection studiedPotential risk factor(s)
Abram et al
201937
UK
1997–2017
104 255NR*80 820/23 4350.47%Deep infectionSex
Barker et al
201028
USA
2002–2006
3126NRNR0.58%Deep and superficial infectionGraft choice
Bohu et al
201916
France
2012–2016
180929.1 (9.8)1249/5600.38%Deep infectionSex, age, previous knee surgery history, professional athletes, out- or inpatient surgery, revision or primary surgery, a concomitant lateral extra-articular tenodesis
Brophy et al
201511
USA
2002–2005
219826.8 (11)NR0.8%Deep infectionAge, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, graft choice
Brophy et al
202132
USA
2002–2011
142327.8 (9.9)832/5910.6%Deep infectionSex, age, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus
Cancienne et al 201631 USA†
2007–2011
13 358NR*8677/46811%Deep and superficial infectionTobacco user
Greenberg et al 201033 USA
2005–2008
86129.7 (11.1)557/3042.3%Superficial infectionGraft choice
Gupta et al
201825
India
2010–2015
146827.1 (3.1)1358/1101.8%Deep and superficial infectionSex, obesity, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, steroid use history, graft choice
Hurvitz et al
202024
USA†
2008–2016
15 67124.4 (9.4)9917/57530.2%Deep infectionGraft choice
Judd et al
200629
USA
1999–2001
418NRNR5.5%Deep and superficial infectionPrevious knee surgery history, graft choice
Katz et al
200836
USA
2001–2005
78231.3 (10.4)NR0.77%Deep infectionAge, out- or inpatient surgery, graft choice
Kawata et al
201815
Japan
2010–2015
30 536NR*16 213/14 3230.94%Deep and superficial infectionSex, age, obesity, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, steroid use history
Kraus et al
202114
Switzerland
2006–2013
25 30926.8 (15)14 521/10 7881.1%Deep infectionSex, age, obesity, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, outpatient or inpatient surgery, revision or primary surgery, graft choice, a concomitant meniscal suture, operating time
Krutsch et al
201726
Germany
2008–2012
180931.4NR0.9%Deep infectionProfessional athletes
Leroux et al
201430
Canada
2004–2010
82730.3 (12.6)486/3412.2%Deep and superficial infectionSex
Maletis et al
201327
USA†
2005–2010
10 62629.5 (11.4)6831/37950.48%Deep and superficial infectionSex, graft choice
Marom et al
202238
USA
2010–2018
11 45130.3 (12.3)6384/50670.42%Deep infectionSex, age, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, revision or primary surgery, graft choice
Murphy et al 20169 USA
2000–2008
11 77231.0 (12.0)6428/
5344
1%Deep infectionSex, age, diabetes mellitus, previous knee surgery history, graft choice
RISTIĆ et al
201435
Serbia
NR
1425NRNR1.2%Deep infectionProfessional athletes, graft choice
Roecker et al 202110 USA†
2010–2019
217 541NR*107 444/1 10 0970.8%Deep and superficial infectionSex, obesity, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, a concomitant meniscal suture
Sonnery-Cottet et al 201113 France
2003–2008
195724.2802/
1155
0.61%Deep infectionProfessional athletes, revision or primary surgery, a concomitant lateral extra-articular tenodesis
Sonnery-Cottet et al 201934 France
2009–2017
442129.1 (8.0)3227/
1194
0.34%Deep infectionSex, professional athletes, revision or primary surgery, a concomitant lateral extra-articular tenodesis
Westermann et al
201712
USA
2007–2013
639832.8 (11.0)4048/
2350
0.61%Deep and superficial infectionSex, age, tobacco user, diabetes mellitus, steroid use history, out- or inpatient surgery, a concomitant meniscal suture, operating time
  • *The reported values are dichotomous variables.

  • †Both Cancienne et al (from 2007 to 2011) and Roecker et al (from 2010 to 2018) used the PearlDiver Mariner Records Database, and both Maletis et al (from 2005 to 2010) and Hurvitz et al (from 2008 to 2016) used the Kaiser Permanente ACLR registry. However, the overlapping study time periods were significantly smaller than the non-overlapping study time periods, so all the studies were included.

  • ACLR, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; NR, not reported.