Table 2

Difference in change in outcome per unit increase in exercise dose (time under tension) or central pain mechanism

SPADIAbduction strengthExternal rotation strength
mean(95% CI) P value mean(95% CI) P value mean(95% CI) P value
Time under tension−2.5(−4.1 to −0.9) 0.002 0.01(−0.002 to 0.015) 0.109 0.00(−0.002 to 0.004) 0.485
adjusted* −2.6(−4.1 to −1.1) 0.001 0.00(−0.004 to 0.011) 0.317 0.00(−0.002 to 0.004) 0.452
TSP0.7(−0.4 to 1.8) 0.212 0.00(−0.009 to 0.004) 0.401 0.00(−0.006 to 0.001) 0.137
adjusted* 0.8(−0.3 to 1.9) 0.168 0.00(−0.009 to 0.004) 0.462 0.00(−0.006 to 0.001) 0.146
CPM-tolerance0.1(−0.2 to 0.3) 0.538 0.00(−0.001 to 0.002) 0.704 0.00(−0.001 to 0.001) 0.849
adjusted* 0.2(−0.1 to 0.5) 0.219 0.00(−0.001 to 0.002) 0.694 0.00(−0.001 to 0.001) 0.810
CPM-detection0.0(−0.1 to 0.2) 0.549 0.00(−0.001 to 0.001) 0.529 0.00(−0.001 to 0) 0.021
adjusted* 0.0(−0.1 to 0.2) 0.502 0.00(−0.001 to 0.001) 0.506 −0.0004(−0.0007 to −0.0001) 0.009
  • *Adjusted for exercise time in usual care.

  • CPM-detection, conditioned pain modulation detection threshold; CPM-tolerance, conditioned pain modulation tolerance threshold; TSP, temporal summation of pain.