Table 1

Musculoskeletal outcome by number of studies

Outcome tissue (type)OutcomeNo of studies
Bone (density)Lumbar BMD2335 39 40 42 46–50 52 58 62–66 71 73–75 77–79
Bone (density)Femur BMD1435 40 42 48 50 52 58 62–64 66 71 75 78
Bone (density)Whole Body BMD839 42 45 58 64 73 77 82
Bone (turnover; resorption)D-PYD640 46 47 49 65 67
Bone (content)Lumbar BMC535 58 62 64 77
Bone (content)Whole Body BMC535 58 64 74 77
Bone (turnover; resorption)CTX541 45 51 61 82
Muscle/bone/ligament/tendon (mass)LBM543 70 73 76 82
Bone (density)Total Hip BMD439 73–75
Bone (density)Radius BMD435 48 62 80
Bone (turnover; formation)BAP440 41 45 51
Bone (turnover; formation)P1NP445 51 61 83
Bone (turnover; formation)BGP446 47 49 65
Bone (turnover; resorption)PYD446 47 49 65
Bone (injury)Any fracture434 37 72 81
Muscle (structure)Quadriceps morphology*438 44 69 70
Joint (condition)TKA353 55 60
Bone (density)Trochanter BMD235 63
Bone (density)Calcaneus BMD267 68
Bone (density)Ward’s Triangle BMD235 63
Bone (density)Tibia BMD245 62
Bone (content)Femur BMC258 64
Bone (content)Radius BMC235 63
Bone (injury)Stress fracture257 74
Joint (condition)THA253 60
Ligament (injury)ACL Injury254 59
Bone (density)Subtotal BMD177
Bone (content)Subtotal BMC177
Bone (turnover; resorption)IGF-1183
Tendon (structure)Tendon morphology†170
Joint (injury)Back disorder‡136
Joint (motion)Anterior tibial translation156
  • *Muscle fibre cross-sectional area, whole muscle cross-sectional area, fibre type, myonuclei content, muscle thickness.

  • †Tendon cross-sectional area, collagen concentration, collagen cross-linking.

  • ‡Tendon cross-sectional area, collagen concentration, collagen cross-linking.

  • ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; BAP, bone alkaline phosphatase; BGP, osteocalcin; BMC, bone mineral content; BMD, bone mineral density; CTX, C-terminal peptide; D-PYD, deoxypyridinoline; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; LBM, lean body mass; P1NP, procollagen type 1 terminal peptide; THA, total hip arthroplasty; TKA, total knee arthroplasty.