Table 2

Subgroup analyses of the association between fairly brisk walking and the risk of type 2 diabetes

VariablesCohorts (n)Relative risk (95% CI)I2, Pheterogeneity P subgroup difference
All cohorts100.76 (0.65 to 0.87)90%, <0.001
Risk of bias0.05
 Moderate30.91 (0.74 to 1.08)57%, 0.10
 Serious70.70 (0.59 to 0.81)84%, <0.001
Region<0.001
 USA70.70 (0.57 to 0.83)78%, <0.001
 Europe10.78 (0.72 to 0.84)
 Asia20.92 (0.88 to 0.97)0%, 0.48
Sex0.31
 Male30.66 (0.46 to 0.86)93%, <0.001
 Female30.74 (0.59 to 0.89)76%, 0.02
 Both50.82 (0.71 to 0.93)63%, 0.02
Follow-up duration0.12
 <8 years60.83 (0.74 to 0.93)75%, <0.001
 ≥8 years40.68 (0.52 to 0.85)84%, <0.001
Number of cases0.25
 <100040.83 (0.70 to 0.95)39%, 0.18
 ≥100060.71 (0.56 to 0.86)94%, <0.001
Walking speed assessment0.01
 Measured50.88 (0.78 to 0.98)43%, 0.14
 Self-reported50.67 (0.53 to 0.80)88%, <0.001
Type 2 diabetes assessment0.01
Medical records or measured70.83 (0.75 to 0.92)72%, <0.001
 Self-reported30.59 (0.43 to 0.76)84%, <0.001
 Adjustments
Total physical activity per day0.47
 Yes60.79 (0.67 to 0.91)84%, <0.001
 No40.70 (0.49 to 0.91)88%, <0.001
Time spent walking per day or step count per day0.48
 Yes40.72 (0.46 to 0.81)56%, 0.08
 No60.80 (0.60 to 1.00)93%, <0.001
Body mass index0.89
 Yes60.73 (0.58 to 0.88)94%, <0.001
 No60.72 (0.56 to 0.87)89%, <0.001
Smoking status
 Yes100.76 (0.65 to 0.86)88%, <0.001
 No0
Alcohol drinking
 Yes100.76 (0.65 to 0.86)88%, <0.001
 No0
Blood pressure0.22
 Yes60.82 (0.68 to 0.96)83%, <0.001
 No40.68 (0.51 to 0.85)90%, <0.001
Family history of diabetes0.10
 Yes60.83 (0.73 to 0.93)76%, <0.001
 No40.66 (0.48 to 0.83)87%, <0.001
Studies that reported relative risk both before and after adjustment for body mass index0.57
 Yes20.69 (0.51 to 0.88)85%, 0.01
 No20.58 (0.25 to 0.92)97%, <0.001