Table 1

Characteristics of cohort studies included in the meta-analysis of walking speed and the risk of type 2 diabetes

Author, year,
country
Cohort name
(follow-up, years)
Participants/ casesAge range
(median or mean)
% femaleAssessment of walking speedDiagnosis of type 2 diabetesWalking speed categoriesRelative risk (95%CI)Adjustments
Hu et al,29
1999
USA
Nurse’s Health Study
(8)
70 102/141940–65100Self-reported using mailed questionnairesSelf-reported, confirmed by laboratory measures<3.2 km/hour
3.2–4.8 km/hour
>4.8 km/hour
1.00
0.86 (0.73 to 1.01)
0.59 (0.47to 0.73)
Age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, menopausal status, parental history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of high cholesterol level and time spent walking per day
Hu et al,28
2001
USA
Health Professionals' Follow-up Study
(10)
37 918/105840–750Self-reported using mailed questionnairesSelf-reported, confirmed by laboratory measures<2 miles/hour
2–2.9 miles/hour
3–3.9 miles/hour
>4 miles/hour
1.00
0.68 (0.58 to 0.85)
0.46 (0.39 to 0.59)
0.39 (0.31 to 0.51)
Age, smoking status, parental history of diabetes, alcohol drinking, body mass index and intakes of fatty acids and dietary fibres
Nakanishi et al,56
2004
Japan
Japanese male cohort
(7)
2924/16830–59 (46.5)0A 1-day activity record during an ordinary weekdayBlood glucose measurement<4.68 km/hour
4.68–6.28 km/hour
1.00
0.87 (0.71 to 1.03)
Age, family history of diabetes, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, body mass index, weekly energy expenditure on physical exercise, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides at study entry
Krishnan et al,54
2009
USA
Black Women’s Health Study
(10)
45 668/292821–69100Self-reported using questionnairesSelf-reported, validated by medical records<2 km/hour
2–3.2 km/hour
3.2–4.8 km/hour
>4.8 km/hour
1.00
1.12 (0.96 to 1.28)
0.99 (0.85 to 1.13)
0.74 (0.62 to 0.86)
Age, time period, family history of diabetes, years of education, family income, marital status, cigarette use, alcohol use, energy intake, coffee consumption, vigorous activity, television watching and walking
Joseph et al,52
2016
USA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
(11.1)
5829/655>18
(61.8)
54Self-reported using questionnairesNewly using hypoglycaemic medications or having fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) at one of four subsequent examinations<2 miles/hour
2–4 miles/hour
>4 miles/hour
1.00
0.76 (0.64 to 0.91)
0.67 (0.54 to 0.74)
Age, race, gender, education, current occupation status, study site, current smoking, systolic blood pressure and current hypertension medication use
Iwasaki et al,51
2021
Japan
Specific Health Check and Guidance System
(3)
167 684/622940–74
(63.7)
61Measured by trained staff at visitsFasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or glycosylated haemoglobin ≥6.5%80 m/min
100 m/min
1.00
0.93 (0.88 to 0.98)
Age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking status, alcohol drinking, weight gain and daily exercise
Boonpor et al,49
2022
UK
UK Biobank
(7.4)
162 155/444237–73
(57)
55A touch-screen questionnaireLinkage to primary care data in the UK BiobankWomen:
<3 miles/hour
3–4 miles/hour
>4 miles/hour
Men:
<3 miles/hour
3–4 miles/hour
>4 miles/hour
1.00
0.78 (0.69 to 0.88)
0.52 (0.44 to 0.62)
1.00
0.78 (0.71 to 0.85)
0.58 (0.50 to 0.67)
Age, ethnicity, deprivation index, education, smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, red meat intake, processed meat intake, alcohol intake, total sedentary time, sleep time, body mass index and time spent walking per day
Cuthbertson et al,50 2022
USA
Hispanic
Community Health Study/ Study of Latinos
(6)
6633/111518–75
(39)
52Actical accelerometer during waking hours for 1 week
  1. Self-reported use of diabetic medication, or

  2. Laboratory-tested fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dL, non-fasting plasma glucose of >200 mg/dL, 2-hour postload oral glucose tolerance test >200 mg/dL, or glycosylated haemoglobin ≥6.5%

<60 steps/min
60–80 steps/min
80–100 steps/min
>100 steps/min
1.00
0.86 (0.64 to 1.16)
0.75 (0.55 to 1.02)
0.56 (0.35 to 0.89)
Age, sex, Latino background by field centre, education, married/ partner status, employment, years in the USA, self-rated general health, mobility limitations, cigarette pack years, alcoholic drinks per week, energy intake, AHEI-2010 and accelerometer wear time
Kaplan et al,53 2022
USA
Framingham Heart Study
(10.8)
4066/24053.956Actical version
B-1 accelerometer, positioned above the iliac crest and worn for 7 days
1. A physician diagnosis of diabetes and the use of diabetes medications, based on self-reported information obtained at an annual telephone follow-up or an in-person cohort examination, or 2. Measured glycaemic traits at a follow-up study examination0–90 steps/min
90–140 steps/min
140–200 steps/min
>200 steps/min
1.00
1.29 (0.88 to 1.88)
1.33 (0.86 to 2.04)
0.88 (0.53 to 1.46)
Age, sex, employment status, marital status, education, body mass index, lipid lowering treatment, hypertension, aspirin use, smoking status, alcohol drinking, diet quality and total physical activity
Master et al,55 2022
USA
All of the US Research Program
(4)
5142/156>18
(56.7)
73Wearing the Fitbit for at least 10 hours per day and reporting at least 100 steps per day for 2 daysElectronic health records<100 steps/min
>100 steps/min
1.00
0.76 (0.58 to 0.98)
Age, race, sex, coronary artery disease, cancer, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, education level, smoking, alcohol use and step count per day
  • AHEI, Alternative Healthy Eating Index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.