Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

CharacteristicsCase-crossover study*Cohort study†
Participants (n=4625)Runners
(n=2820, 61%)
Cyclists
(n=608, 13%)
Walkers
(n=1197, 26%)
Non-participants
(n=2 11 592)
Participants
(n=5 46 876)
Runners
(n=3 94 981, 72%)
Cyclists
(n=60 586, 11%)
Walkers
(n=91 309, 17%)
Age at sporting event (years)54 (45–63)50 (42–57)61 (51–68)63 (56–70)41 (31–50)41 (31–50)38 (29–47)44 (33–54)53 (44–61)
Sex (% male)3430 (74%)2137 (76%)537 (88%)756 (63%)141 592 (67%)304 190 (56%)224 721 (57%)49 123 (81%)30 346 (33%)
No previous sporting events2 (1–3)2 (1–3)1 (1–3)2 (1–3)NA2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–4)
Race distance (km)‡NA15 (15–16) min 4; max 4275 (45–145) min 10; max 24518 (15–25) min 5; max 180NANA15 (12–6) min 1; max 42110 (60– 150) min 4; max 24518 (15–21)min 5; max 180
Race distance categories (km)‡NA<10: 207 (7%)
10–20: 2128 (77%)
21–41: 387 (14%)
≥42: 60 (2%)
<80: 273 (51%)
80–119: 55 (10%)
120–159: 91 (17%)
≥160: 114 (21%)
<10: 58 (6%)
10–19: 417 (46%)
20–29: 365 (40%)
≥30: 73 (8%)
NANA<10: 76 838 (20%)
10–20: 236 067 (60%)
21–41: 66 532 (17%)
≥42: 14 351 (3%)
<80: 14 935 (30%)
80–119: 11 196 (21%)
120–159: 11 081 (23%)
≥160: 11 930 (24%)
<10: 1551 (2%)
10–19: 40 463 (54%)
20–29: 26 959 (36%)
≥30: 6082 (8%)
Speed (km/hour)‡NA10.9 (9.9–12.1)18.0 (15.8–22.1)NANANA10.6 (9.6–11.8)20.2 (17.6–23.2)NA
  • *All characteristics were statistically significant different between the runners, cyclists and walkers with p<0.001, except for the number of previous participations to sporting events with a p=0.003.

  • †All characteristics were statistically significant different between the non-participants and participants and between runners, cyclists and walkers with p<0.001, except for age between non-participants and participants (p=0.22).

  • ‡Distance and speed were available in a subset of the population (95% and 41%, respectively).

  • NA, not applicable.