Table 1

Tests and measurements of functional, somatometric characteristics and asymmetries of the lower limbs of professional soccer players (N=100)

Intrinsic risk factorAnatomical elements*/propertyAssessed variablesExperimental equipment—procedure
Isokinetic muscle strengthKnee extensorsCon 60, 180, 300°/s; Ecc 60, 180°/s (Nm)Biodex System III4
Knee flexorsCon 60, 180, 300°/s; Ecc 60, 180°/s (Nm)
Ankle plantar flexorsCon—Ecc 60°/s (Nm)
Ankle dorsal flexorsCon—Ecc 60°/s (Nm)
Functional knee strength ratioEccentric knee flexors/concentric knee extensors180°/s (Nm)Biodex system III4
Muscle flexibilityHamstringsRange of motion (°)Goniometric evaluation37
Ankle plantar flexors
ProprioceptionNeuromuscular coordination of the lower extremitiesPercentage deterioration from ideal kinaesthetic rotation of the ankle jointKinaesthetic stabilometer Prokin-200 (Prokin-technobody Italy)38
AnthropometricsWeightHeightMid-thigh girthLower limb functional lengthWeight (kg)International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry method39
Height (cm)
Mid-thigh girth (cm)
Lower-limb functional length (cm)
Joint stabilityKnee jointAnterior knee laxity (mm)KT-1000 (medmetric)40
Previous injuriesLower-extremity injuriesNon-contact muscle strainsSpecific questionnaire36
  • * Measurements on both sides (left, right).

  • Con, concentric; Ecc, eccentric.