Table 1

The summary of included studies examining the efficacy of orthoses

StudyNType of orthosesInterventionControlDesign/materialKinematics measurementMean differenceSDSEMean difference (95% CI)
Bates et al286Custom madeCustom-made orthosesBarefootNR3D6.003.701.512.30 to 9.70
Brown et al2924Custom madeShoe + custom-made orthosesShoe onlyStyrene butadiene rubber orthoses + Spenco Arch supports2D0.403.800.78−3.40 to 4.20
Eng and Pierrynowski3010Custom madeShoe + custom-made orthosesShoe onlyCustom-adjusted Spenco insole3D2.503.401.08−0.90 to 5.90
Eslami et al3112Custom madeSandal + custom-made orthosesSandal onlyDuctile polypropylene plastic3D4.123.861.110.27 to 7.98
Johanson et al3222Custom madeShoe + custom-made orthosesShoe onlyOrthoFeet Bio Orthotics + custom forefoot and rearfoot posts2D2.252.860.61−0.61 to 5.11
MacLean et al3315Custom madeShoe + custom-made orthosesShoe onlyPolypropylene or copolymer shell + rearfoot post3D1.083.380.87−2.30 to 4.46
McCulloch et al3410PrefabricatedShoe + prefabricated orthosesShoe only7 subjects: rigid orthoses; 3 subjects: semi-rigid orthoses3D4.005.351.69−1.35 to 9.35
Moss et al35a6PrefabricatedShoe + custom-made rigid orthosesShoe onlyRigid orthoses2D0.804.301.75−3.50 to 5.10
Mündermann et al3621PrefabricatedShoe + prefabricated orthoses with medial postShoe + control insertEthyl vinyl acetate bottom layer with 6 mm medial post at rearfoot and forefoot3D2.302.500.55−0.20 to 4.80
Novick and Kelley3721PrefabricatedShoe + custom-made orthosesShoe onlyRigid orthoses made of 2-mm thick Subortholen and 0.25-inch Thermocork3D4.242.910.641.33 to 7.15
Rodgers and Leveau3829Custom madeShoe + prefabricated orthosesShoe onlySemi-rigid orthoses made of polypropylene2D0.933.350.62−2.42 to 4.28
Smith et al3911Custom madeShoe + custom-made orthosesShoe onlySemi-rigid orthoses made by podiatrists2D1.202.900.87−1.70 to 4.10
Stacoff et al245PrefabricatedShoe + prefabricated orthosesShoe onlyOrthoses with posterior post3D (with bone pin markers)1.033.031.36−2.00 to 4.06
  • 3D, 3-dimensional; 2D, 2-dimensional; NR, not reported.