Table 4

Characteristics of participants in the included studies

StudyAgeGenderGender controlRunnerHealthy/patient groupFoot-type controlOther characteristicsTesting conditionSpeed
Bates et al28NRNRNRYPreviously seek medical consultation due to running injuriesNOrthoses prescribed for at least 1 yearTreadmill runningSelf-paced in the range from 2.82-4.77 m/sec
Brown et al2930.9±6.9MixedNNPatients with a current history of lower quarter dysfunction related to excessive foot pronationYFree of lower extremity torsional abnormalitiesTreadmill walkingSelf-paced comfortable walking speed
Eng and Pierrynowski3014.4±1.1FYNPatients who had been prescribed foot orthotics for patellofemoral pain syndromeYWith excessive foot pronationTreadmill running1.78 m/s
Eslami et al3127.9±4.5MYNHealthyNNAOverground running170 steps/min
Johanson et al3230.5±8.0MixedNNHealthyYWith excessive foot pronationTreadmill walking4.0 km/h
MacLean et al3321.3, SD not reportedFYYHealthyNNever worn orthoses before studyOverground running3.6 m/s ± 5%
McCulloch et al34NRMixedNNPatient presenting leg or foot pain related to excessive foot pronationYPrescribed foot orthoses before studyTreadmill walking3 mph
Moss et al3520–22MixedNYHealthy at the time of data collectionNPrescribed foot orthoses for at least 2 years before studyTreadmill running4.47 m/s
Mündermann et al3625.4±5.6MixedNNHealthyYWith excessive foot pronationOverground running4.0±0.2 m/s
Novick and Kelley3730.19, SD not reportedMixedNNHealthyYWith excessive foot pronationOverground walkingSelf-paced comfortable walking speed
Rodgers and Leveau3814–53, mean and SD not reportedMaleYYNRNPrescribed semi-rigid orthoses before studyOverground running7–8 min per mile
Smith et al39NRMixedNYNRNPrescribed orthoses before studyTreadmill running7 min per mile
Stacoff et al2428.6±4.3MaleYNHealthyYAll subjects are not overpronatorsOverground running2.5–3.0 m/s
Butler et al40High arch group: 22.3±4.4; Low arch group: 22.8±4.7MixedNYHealthyYParticipants were stratified with arch heightOverground running3.5 m/s ± 5%
Cheung and Ng1723.5±6.8FemaleYYHealthyYWith excessive foot pronationTreadmill running2.78 m/s
Clarke et al41NRNRNYHealthyNNATreadmill running3.8 m/s
Hamill et al4220–26FemaleYNHealthy and regular participants in physical activity but not highly trainedNEvaluation after cardiopulmonary fatigued by exercise protocolTreadmill running9.9–13.4 km/h
Kersting and Brüggemann4328.9±6.0MaleYYHealthyYAll subjects are not overpronatorsOverground running4.0 m/s
Milani et al44NRMaleYNHealthyNNAOverground running3.5 m/s ± 3%
Nigg and Morlock45NRMaleYYNRNNAOverground running4.0 ± 0.2 m/s
Stacoff et al2528.6±4.3MaleYNHealthyNNAOverground running2.5–3.0 m/s
van Gheluwe et al918–24NRNNPhysical education studentsNNATreadmill running3.8 m/s
Harradine et al46NRMixedNNPatients from Podiatry or Physiotherapy DepartmentYWith excessive foot pronationTreadmill walking3.9–5.8 km/h
Jamali et al47NRMixedNNPatients with plantar fasciitisNNAStatic standingNA
Keenan and Tanner4820.2, SD not reportedMixedNNHealthyNNATreadmill walkingSelf-paced comfortable walking speed
Kersting et al4928.9±5.0MaleYYHealthyYAll subjects are not overpronatorsTreadmill running4.0 m/s
O'Sullivan et al5022.1±5.0NRNNHealthyYWith excessive foot pronationOverground walkingSelf-paced comfortable walking speed
Whitaker et al51NRNRNNHealthyYWith excessive foot pronationStatic standingNA
  • F, female; M, male; NA, not applicable; N, no; NR, not reported; Y, yes.