Table 3

Physiological, biomechanical, and sensorimotor effects of running after a cycle to run transition, as compared with isolated running, in triathletes

Key: ↑ increase; ↓ decrease; V̇e, ventilation (litres/min); HR, heart rate (beats/min); BLA, blood lactate concentration; HR=max, maximal heart rate; V̇o2max, maximal oxygen uptake; CR, energy cost of running; CR, constant run; PR, progressive run; NS, non-significant at the 95% confidence limit.
13 female duathletes & triathletesMeasurement of running economy at 169, 177, 196 and 215 m/min and run at V̇o2max during control running v after 45 min cycling at 70% V̇o2max↑ running economy (p<0.02) at each test velocity after cyclingDanner and Plowman17
5 menCycled 70% V̇o2maxfor 60 min then ran at 85% o2max for 30 min. 2 control run or bike sessions.CR: ↑ V̇o2, V̇e, HR than CRKreider et al26
Cycle 60 min followed by either constant run CN 85% V̇o2max or PR (increase up to 85% in first 9 min)PR strategy did ↓ work in first 9 min but induced ↓ V̇o2, V̇e, HR and BLA in rest of run than CR.
5 triathletesFilmed at 1, 5, and 9 km into 10 km run after warm up or after 40 km cycleRun speed ↓ after bike (p<0.05) though no difference in run velocity or stride length at the intervals. Trend to↓ stride length after bike (NS).↑ internal mechanical work. No significant difference in passive energy exchange or rate of energy exchange in the run mechanics between the two conditionsMarino and Goegan25
12 menPrior swim and bike ↑ V̇o2, V̇e, HR and ventilatory efficiency (all NS)Miura et al10
11 men1.5 km swim + 40 km run + 10 km run↑ mean V̇o2Guezennec et al22
1 week later did control 10 km run↑ fraction of V̇o2max used
↑ mean V̇e, HR, and lactate at end of both runs NS
↓ running efficiency
4 triathletes, 3 duathletes(30 min swim, 60 min bike, 45 min run) or 45 min run at triathlon run speed. Swim to cycle transition of 5 min; cycle to run transition of 8 min. triathlon run at 60 % HRmax 20 min then 80%.↑ in CRHausswirth et al23
↓ stride length immediately after cycling
mean stride length unchanged
7 menAs in Hausswirth et al23↑ forward leaning posture after cyclingHausswirth et al18
8 elite, 8 subelite, mixed sexTwo 7 min runs at speed same as sustained during triathlon before and after max cycle exercise CR and external mechanical cost of running evaluated during last min of each run.Triathlon ability level related to change in energy cost after bike (p<0.01). Effect of cycling on respiratory muscle O2 demand more important (p<0.05) for subelite than elite. Tendency to ↓ mechanical cost associated with better leg stiffness regulation in elitesMillet et al31