Table 2

Summary of selected studies on the effect of exercise on osteoarthritis of the knee

StudyDesignIntervention groupDuration/sessionsDuration of sessionsIntensityPainDisabilityWalk
RCT, randomised controlled trial; RND, randomised not specified; No, not done; VAS, visual analogue scale; AIMS, arthritis measurement scale; WOMAC, Western Ontario McMaster pain scale; Resis, resistance exercise; Aerobic, aerobic exercise; Aquatic, water exercise; ROM, range of motion; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; HR, heart rate; QOL, quality of life; US, ultrasound; SWD short wave diathermy.
15RND1. 15-Low Resis + education12 weeks/3 per week1 hour per sessions3 reps each exercise and increase to 10 at 4 weeksVAS presentAIMWalking based on 50% performance of Balke test
2. 5-Education
17RND1. 9 -control sham electrical stimulation4 weeks/2 per week20 min per sessionNot givenVAS presentClinical measures of swelling, ROMTime to complete 50 m
2. 9 -20 min PT 3 sets of 10 exercises
3. 9 -education; sit to stand ex, step downs
18RND1. 7 -Resis + diathermy (hospital)12 weeks/3 per weekNot givenGraduated ResisNoNoMax wt + endurance
2. 7 -Resis at home
8RCT1. 144 -Aerobic18 months: 3 months in-patient then 12 months1. 1 hour1. 50–70% HRRNoSelf-reported disability score, X-ray score6 min walk, stair climbing, muscle strength
2. 146 -Resis (9)home-based/3 per week2. 1 hour2. 1.1 kg start, increase 1–2 sets of 12 reps for 3 d
3. 149 -education
19RND1. Ultrasound8 weeks/3 per weekNot givenNot givenNoNoFunctional capacity; peak torque
2. Short-wave diathermy
3. US + Resis
4. SWD + Resis
20RCT1. 47 -supervised walking8 weeks/not givenNot givenNot givenNot givenAIMS6 min walk test
2. 45 -standard of care
10RCT1. 40 -Aerobic (walking)12 weeks/3 per week60 min (30 min + warmup)HR at 60–80% max on treadmillAIMS, Tennessee self-concept scaleTrunk flexibilityWalking tolerance on treadmill
2. 40 - Aquatics
3. 40 -ROM control ex
12RCT1. 60-Home-based 7 isokinetic ex exercise8 weeks/dailyGraduated reps and sessions/dayAs per graduated protocolWOMAC, VAS rest and after ex testsSF-36Self-paced walk and step test
2. 60-control
21RND1. 7 -hydrotherapy including pool walking6 weeks/2 per week30 min/sessionNot givenVAS presentPhiladelphia QOL, gait analysis, ROMNot given
2. 7 -short wave diathermy + walking, cycling, step downs
2RCT1. 100 -exercise tailored to patient12 weeks/1–3 per week30 min per sessionNot givenVAS over last weekSelf-reported disability, NSAID use, strengthVideo of common tasks, NSAID use
2. 101 -education