Table 2

Summary of studies measuring the effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on posture control

ReferenceSubject numbers Average age (years)Design and measurementsResults
IN, Intervention; Con, control; BT, balance training.
Tse et al14N = 9 (TCC)Cross sectional studyTCC group had significantly better posture control capacity with vision.
N = 9 (Con)Single leg stance with both the eyes open and closed forms
Age = 65–86Heel to toe walking with eyes open
Schaller17N = 24 (TCC)10 week INSignificantly improved balance capacity with vision, but flexibility did not change.
N = 22 (Con)Single leg stance with both the eyes open and closed forms
Age = 70Sit and reach test
Wolf et al18N = 72 (TCC)(15 week IN & 4 month follow up)Fear of falling was reduced after the TCC intervention, when compared with the Education group.
N = 64 (BT)Isometric contractions about the hip, knee, or ankle
N = 64 (Con)Grip strength
Age = 76.2Fear of falling questionnaire
Wolfson et al21N = 1106 month INTCC training has the effect of maintaining the significant balance and strength gains.
Age = 80Loss of balance during sensory organisation testing, single stance time, voluntary limits of stability, isokinetic torque of eight lower extremity movements, gait velocity
Shih20N = 1116 week INSignificantly decreased the average velocity of sway in dynamic conditions, but not in static conditions.
Age = 30.8Velocity of sway in anterior and posterior in static and dynamic conditions
Jacobson et al19N = 12 (TCC)12 week INLateral stability, kinaesthetic sense at 60°, and strength of the knee extensor were significantly improved
N = 12 (Con)Isometric muscle strength at 90°, lateral body stability, kinaesthetic sense in the glenohumeral joint at 30°, 45°, and 60°
Age = 30.4
Hong et al16N = 28 (TCC)Cross sectional studyLong term TCC practice can significantly improve balance capacity with and without vision, and flexibility
Age = 67Single limb stance with the eyes open and eyes closed forms
N = 30 (Con)Sit and reach test
Age = 66.2