Table 3

Summary of studies on the impact of Tai Chi chuan (TCC) exercise on cardiorespiratory function

ReferenceSubject numbers Average age (years)Design and measurementsResults
IN, Intervention; BT, balance training.
BMUISM25N = 311 min step test, ECG, blood pressureTCC practitioners showed significantly better cardiac function and lower blood pressure.
Age = 50–89
Zhang28N = 11 (TCC)1 year INTCC group showed significantly better working power, cardiac function, and blood dynamics.
Age = 61.33Working capacity (PWC130), cardiac function, and haemodynamics
N = 12 (Con)
Age = 60.41
Lai et al12N = 84 (TCC)2 year INRegular practice TCC may delay the decline of cardiorespiratory function in older adults.
N = 39 (Con)Cardiorespiratory function
Age = 64
Channer et al29N = 38 (TCC)8 week INThere was a negative trend in diastolic blood pressure in the TCC group. Significant trends in systolic blood pressure were found in the TCC and aerobic groups.
N = 41 (aerobic)Blood pressure
N = 47 (Con)
Age = 56
Lan et al15N = 41 (TCC)Cross sectional studyTCC practitioners have higher peak oxygen uptake, and higher oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold.
N = 35 (Con)Cardiorespiratory function
Age = 69.3
Schaller17N = 24 (TCC)10 week INTCC intervention did not change the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
N = 22 (Con)Blood pressure
Age = 70
Wolf et al18N = 72 (TCC)15 week IN and 4 month follow upTCC training significantly improves cardiovascular endurance.
N = 64 (BT)Cardiovascular endurance (12 minutes walk with recorded heart rate and blood pressure)
N = 64 (Education)
Age = 76.2
Young et al40N = 62 (TCC or aerobic)12 week INTCC programme of light activity can decrease blood pressure in previously sedentary adults.
Age≥ 60Blood pressure
Lan et al30N = 9 (TCC)1 year INTCC exercise can enhance cardiorespiratory function in patients who have experienced coronary artery bypass surgery
N = 11 (Control)Cardiorespiratory function (peak oxygen uptake and peak work rate)