Table 1

Counter measures to prevent or control gymnastics injuries

Level of preventionPotential counter measures
Primary (pre-event)• Adequate warm up and stretching before and after gymnastics sessions
• Good physical condition appropriate to the specific demands of gymnastics
• Attention to equipment factors—for example, appropriate matting
• Screening programmes to identify at risk gymnasts and corrective actions
• Coaches and spotters
• Education of gymnasts, coaches, and parents
• Facilities design
Secondary (event)• Equipment design and maintenance
• Facilities design
• Personal protective equipment—for example, hand guards
Tertiary (post-event)• Prompt first aid and medical attention
• Adequate first aid facilities
• Full rehabilitation before returning to participation