Table 1

Parallels between immune responses to surgical trauma and stressful bouts of physical activity

• Cellular infiltration dependent on extent of tissue damage.12 17–19
• Activation of neutrophils and macrophages with accumulation of free radicals.12 20 21
• Local release of acute phase reactants23 24 and pro-inflammatory cytokines,25 26 with activation of complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascades.23
• Downregulation of CD4 cells and shift in CD4:CD8 ratio.2830
• Suppression of natural killer (NK) cell counts and activity30 31
• Suppressed production of immunoglobulins.3234
• Suppressed mitogen stimulated T cell proliferation.32 33