Table 5

Analysis of the included studies

InterventionRelative risk (95% CI)
*Effect favours intervention.
Modification of training schedule
Reduction in frequency of training130.19 (0.06 to 0.66)*
Reduction in duration of training130.41 (0.21 to 0.79)*
Reduction in running distance14,150.70 (0.54 to 0.91)*
    Hip injuries0.87 (0.37 to 2.04)
    Knee injuries0.45 (0.26 to 0.80)*
    Lower leg injuries1.33 (0.47 to 3.76)
    Ankle and foot injuries0.77 (0.48 to 1.25)
Graduated running programme162.07 (1.13 to 3.80)
Stretching exercises (data not pooled for analysis)
Stretching outside training session16,17
    Andrish et al.161.27 (0.66 to 2.43)
    Hartig and Henderson170.57 (0.37 to 0.89)*
Stretching immediately before training session18–20
    Pope et al.180.85 (0.43 to 1.67)
    Pope et al.190.83 (0.63 to 1.09)
    van Mechelen et al.201.19 (0.71 to 1.99)
Use of external support or footwear modification
Use of shock absorbing insoles16,21–230.87 (0.69 to 1.11)
    Hip injuries221.62 (0.53 to 4.98)
    Knee injuries220.82 (0.54 to 1.23)
    Lower leg injuries16,22,230.91 (0.59 to 1.42)
    Ankle and foot injuries22,231.27 (0.71 to 2.29)
Footwear modification240.83 (0.71 to 0.98)*
    Knee injuries0.93 (0.62 to 1.39)
    Lower leg injuries1.26 (0.82 to 1.93)
    Foot injuries0.53 (0.36 to 0.79)*
Use of knee brace250.35 (0.13 to 0.91)*