Table 1

Comparison of impact tests for sporting protective headgear

CricketBaseballIce hockey
BS, British standard; AS, Australian/New Zealand standard; NOCSAE, National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment; ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials; ISO, International Standards Organization; CSA, Canadian standards; GSI, Gadd severity index (GSI and SI are functions of headform acceleration); MEP, modular elastomeric profiler, a semirigid anvil.
StandardBS 792816AS 449917NOCSAE18ASTM – F104519ISO20CSA 1025621
Impact testDrop test of headformStriker with ball (1.5 kg)Ball fired at helmetDrop test of headformDrop test of headform
Impact energy8.5 J30 J52 J50 J40 J
AnvilHemisphericalStriker dropped on to helmetNOCSAE headformMEP: flat, non-rigidFlat, rigid
Assessment criterion250 g25% reduction in acceleration compared with bare headform testSeverity index (SI) <1500275 g275 g - CSA 300 g & Gadd <1500 –ISO