Table 4

Quality ratings and subscores

First authorDesignQuality rating subscoresMain limitation
*Pre-post and Pre-post 2 scoring differed in that for Pre-post 2, team or club membership may have been inconsistent over time, thus questions on follow up were not applicable.
EkstrandRCTRandomisation1/2Lack of adherence to original
Double blind0/2RCT design
Drop outs described1/1
Total2/5
CaraffaNon-equivalentReporting5/6Comparability of groups
control groupInternal validity5/8
Total10/14
Percentage71%
EliasTime seriesReporting3/6Limitations in design and
(Pre-post)Internal validity5/9reporting
Total8/15
Percentage53%
LehnhardTime seriesReporting3/5Comparability of groups
(Pre-post 2)*Internal validity4/9
Total7/14
Percentage50%