Table 1

 Epidemiology of hepatitis B and vaccination strategies2,46,47

Endemicity*% of carriers in population% of infected populationAge of infectionStrategy for vaccination
*Endemic: prevalent continuously to some degree in a community or region.
†In children, infection is rarely acute with 25–90% becoming chronic carriers.
‡In adults, infection is often acute with 5–10 % becoming chronic carriers.
§High risk groups such as sexual/household contacts of infected person, healthcare workers, injection drug users, those receiving non-sterile acupuncture or tattooing, homosexual and active heterosexual men.
¶30% of those with acute infection do not have identifiable risk factors.
High>8 (8–20)70–90 < the age of 40Mostly perinatal and childhood period†Universal infant and high risk group
Intermediate2–820–70Both childhood and adult‡Universal infant and high risk group
Low<2<20Mostly high risk adolescents and adults§,¶Universal infant or adolescent and/or high risk group