Table 1

 Animal studies on the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on bone healing: five randomised controlled trials using rats

The quality of all the studies was level A.
Allen et al161980210 male rats with fractured radius and ulnaIndomethacin (1–4 mg/kg/day), aspirin (100–300 mg/kg/day) and control groupsRetardation of fracture healing with all doses of indomethacin studied and high dose aspirin
Altman et al171995Rats with femoral fracturesIndomethacin (1 mg/kg/day), ibuprofen (30 mg/kg/day) and control groupsInhibition of fracture repair characterised by delayed maturation of the callus; found to be reversible after cessation of indomethacin, but not ibuprofen
Elves et al18198283 rats of various ages with surgically created vertebral fracturesIndomethacin (4 mg/kg/day) and control groupDelay and impairment of bone repair in mature rats only; reversed on cessation
Hogevold et al19199272 male rats with mid-shaft femoral fractures. Involving a complete-osteotomy and a partial-osteotomy groupNaCl group, indomethacin group (2 mg/kg/day), steroid group (methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg) and control groupIndomethacin inhibited fracture healing; this effect was less in the partial osteotomy group than in the complete osteotomy group
Sudmann et al22198248 adolescent male rats with femoral shaft fracturesIndomethacin (2 mg/kg/day) and control groups.No effect on the ordered bone growth and remodelling