Table 1

 Summary of the literature on stroke volume response to exercise

ReferenceSubjects (age)ModeVo2maxSVmax (ml/beat)QSV response
Data are presented as the mean or range.
SV, Stroke volume; ET, endurance trained; UT, untrained; PA, physically active; MT, moderately trained; MA, master athlete; DR, distance runners; ER, elite runners; CR, competitive runners; NCR, non-competitive runners; SED, sedentary; TM, Treadmill; DD, dye dilution; ARB, acetylene rebreathing; TDE, two dimensional echo; HC, heart catheter; IC, impedance cardiography; CO2, CO2 rebreathing; RNA, radionuclide angiography; RNV, radionuclide ventriculography.
Chapman et al526 men (19–63)TM3.7 litres/min136DDBimodal ↑
Bevegard et al28 ET men (17–28)Cycle3.4 litres/min155HCPlateau
Astrand et al111 women (20–31)Cycle2.6 litres/min100DDPlateau
12 men (20–31)4.05 litres/min134
Grimby et al39 ET men (45–55)Cycle3.8 litres/min163DDPlateau
Ekblom & Hermansen613 athletes (22–34)TM73.9 ml/kg/min189DD9 progressive ↑
4 plateau
Vanfraechem2217 ET men (21)Cycle4.55 litres/min122ICProgressive ↑
Crawford et al2312 CR men & womenCycleRNAProgressive ↑
16 NCR men & womenPlateau
Hagberg et al248 MA men (56)TM56.6 ml/kg/min133CO2Plateau
8 Matched to MA (25)62.2 ml/kg/min131Plateau
8 CR men (26)70.3 ml/kg/min133Plateau
15 SED men (58)29.7 ml/kg/min109Plateau
Higginbotham412 UT men (20–50)Cycle2.0–3.8 litres/minDDPlateau
12 ET men (20–50)
Rivera et al1011 ET men (27–39)Cycle70.4 ml/kg/min137ARBET plateau
11 MA men (59–81)45 ml/kg/min1175/11 MA plateau
6/11 MA progressive ↑
Sullivan et al1634 men (20–70)Cycle31.5 ml/kg/minHCPlateau
27 women (20–63)28.4 ml/kg/min
Ogawa et al1714 SED men (27)TM45.9 ml/kg/min115ARBProgressive ↓
13 SED men (63)27.2 ml/kg/min10150–100% of Vo2max in all
14 SED women (23)37 ml/kg/min80groups
14 SED women (64)22.2 ml/kg/min74
15 ET men (28)63.3 ml/kg/min154
14 ET men (63)47.6 ml/kg/min124
13 ET women (26)52.1 ml/kg/min102
13 ET women (57)35.3 ml/kg/min85
Spina et al1912 Men & women (25)Cycle & TMBefore training:Before training:ARBBefore training: Progressive ↓
Training study42 ml/kg/min10650–100% of Vo2max After
After training:After training:training: Plateau
50 ml/kg/min115
Spina et al1515 men (63)TMAfter training:After training:ARBBefore & after training:
16 women (64)2.8 litres/min116Progressive ↓
Training study1.66 litres/min7050–100% of Vo2max
Leyk et al257 ET men (26)Cycle4.05 litres/minTDEPlateau
2 ET women (26)
Gledhill et al77 ET men (22.5)Cycle68.6 ml/kg/min183ARBUT plateau
7 UT men (22)44.1 ml/kg/min129ET progressive ↑
McLaren et al1310 Male cyclists (65)Cycle54 ml/kg/minICPlateau
11 Male runners (65)48 ml/kg/min
10 UT men (66)28 ml/kg/min
Krip et al86 UT men (22)Cycle41.5 ml/kg/min130ARBProgressive ↑
6 ET men (24.8)64 ml/kg/min171
Proctor et al148 Young ET men (24)Cycle56.5 ml/kg/minARBYoung men progressive ↓
8 Older ET men (64) 6 Young ET women (27)39.9 ml/kg/min 45.6 ml/kg/minOlder men plateau with some exhibiting progressive ↓
70–90% of Vo2max
Young women plateau
Older women progressive ↓
8 Older ET women (61)35.1 ml/kg/min70–90% of Vo2max
McCole et al1811 SED women (63)TMARBProgressive ↓
19 PA women (63)60–100% of Vo2max
14 MA women (65)
Wiebe et al1123 ET women (20–63)Cycle40–70 ml/kg/min104–125ARBProgressive ↑
Warburton et al219 ET men (22)Cycle68.9 ml/kg/min160ARBProgressive ↑
Ferguson et al207 MT women (18–30)Cycle64.3 ml/kg/min121ARBMT bimodal ↑
7 ET women (18–30)42.1 ml/kg/min90ET progressive ↑
Zhou et al1210 UT men (28)TM48.9 ml/kg/min128ARBUT plateau
10 male DR (26)72.1 ml/kg/min145DR plateau
5 male ER (30)84.1 ml/kg/min187ER progressive ↑
Martino et al96 UT men (19–22)TM43–67 ml/kg/min89–159ARBBimodal ↑
Warburton et al2610 ET men (18–30)Cycle67.8 ml/kg/minRNVProgressive ↑