Table 1

 Profile of head and neck injury risks in selected sports

SportInjury incidence, proportion of head and neck injury, and special issues
Rugby19.4 lost time injuries per 1000 player hours (under 15 level to international combined); head injury 14–25%, concussion 5–15%; neck injury 2.6–7.5%, risk of catastrophic injury3
Ice hockey96 per 1000 player hours (junior), 53 per 1000 player game hours; 4–18% at the professional level, 1995–2001 & concussion 2–20%; intracranial injury and blinding4–6
American football40 per 1000 athletic exposures; 6.1% concussion & 0.41 concussions per National Football League game; neck injury 5%; severe and fatal injury7–9
BaseballFacial injury 28%, head injury 11%, oral injury 5% in 5–14 year olds and emergency visits; leading cause of sports related eye injury in the USA10
Youth soccer/football0.6–29 injuries per 1000 player hours, depending on level of play; head injury 4–20%; fatal injuries in children caused by falling goal posts; debate over concussion and heading11–13
Boxing16% of injuries in professional boxing are concussion; risk of severe acute and long term brain injury14
Cricket2 injuries per 1000 hours in first class15; head injury 3–25%; orofacial and eye injuries15,16
Professional horse racing606 injuries per 1000 jockey years (1993–1996, USA); head, neck, and facial injury 19%; severe spectrum of injuries from falls and collisions17
Skiing & snowboarding2–6 injuries per 1000 skier days; brain injury accounted for 29% of all injuries admitted to hospital, 50–88% of all fatalities, and in general 3–15% of all injuries.18; head injury 7% of all injuries19; collision with rigid objects, such as trees, may be fatal18,19