Table 1

‚ÄÉCategories of injury mechanism descriptions with examples of elements and descriptions

CategoryElementsExamples of factors describing the injury mechanism
Non-contact ACL injury in basketballACL injury in a mogul skiing jump landingKnock-out in boxingLower leg stress fracture in football
ACL, Anterior cruciate ligament.
Playing (sports) situationTeam actionFast breakCourse steepnessUppercut, hookExposure to matches and training (total load)
Skill performed before, and at, the point of injuryZone defenceJump elements (e.g. twist, helicopter)CounterattackMidfielder with defensive and offensive tasks (i.e. many runs in matches/training)
Court positionChargingJump height & lengthFoot workHard working team
Player positionCuttingForced into the corner/to the ropesFrequency of duels
Ball handlingSetting up for a shotRing-side referee decision
Defensive reboundInter-boxer distance
Man to man defence
Athlete/opponent behaviourPlayer performanceEffortRhythm and balance before the jumpAwarenessEffort
Opponent interactionDisturbance by opponentConcentrationAggressivenessToe/heel runner
Player attentionIntentionBalancePunching powerJumping technique
Foot firmly fixed to the floorBoot binding releasePunching speedDuel technique
IntentionVisual controlBalance
Technical foulJumping technique
Over-rotation
Falling technique
Whole body biomechanicsCoarse description, often static, of whole body kinematics and kineticsSideways translationLinear and angular momentumCentre of mass velocityStride length
Rotation of the body around the fixed footEnergy absorptionPunching forceStride frequency
Speed at impactCentre of mass to the rearPunching directionVertical excursion
Foot in front of centre of massWeight distribution on the legsGround reaction forces
Knee flexion angle
Joint/tissue biomechanicsDetailed description of joint/tissue kinematics and kineticsValgus momentShear forcesEnergy transferBending moment
Pivot shift of the tibia relative to the femurAnterior drawerHead accelerationShear forces
Notch impingementIntercondylar lift off, loading ratePressure distribution and localisationSurface/shoe dynamics