Table 1

 Classification of 46 sports (n = 186) divided into three groups based on the degree of mechanical loading in the sport

Low impact* (n = 38)Medium impact† (n = 51)High impact‡ (n = 97)
*Includes non-weight bearing sports or sports with low mechanical loading.
†Includes weight bearing sports and sports with moderate mechanical loading. Sports including elements of sprinting and turning actions are included in this group.
‡Includes weight bearing sports with high mechanical loading. Sports where jumping activities and/or rapid movements are widespread are included in this group.
Billiard (n = 1)Ski orienteering (n = 2)Gymnastics (n = 16)
Bowling (n = 3)Triathlon (n = 1)Track and field (sprint events) (n = 4)
Climbing (n = 3)Kickboxing (n = 1)Rhythmic gymnastics (n = 17)
Curling (n = 1)Table tennis (n = 2)Tennis (n = 1)
Cycling (n = 4)Paddling (n = 1)Power lifting (n = 2)
Dog racing (n = 2)Judo (n = 1)Basketball (n = 6)
Horseback riding (dressage) (n = 3)Race walking (n = 2)Team handball (n = 14)
Shooting (n = 3)Middle and long distance running (n = 6)Volleyball (n = 6)
Swimming (n = 6)Rowing (n = 3)Alpine skiing (n = 1)
Underwater rugby (n = 12)Sailing (n = 3)Telemark skiing(n = 1)
Sports dance (n = 4)Badminton (n = 3)
Karate (n = 1)Figure skating (n = 1)
Biathlon (n = 2)Ice hockey (n = 1)
Track and field (throwing events) (n = 1)Soccer (n = 17)
Cross-country skiing (n = 3)Speed skating sprint (n = 2)
Field hockey (n = 8)Track and field (jumping events) (n = 4)
Wrestling (n = 1)Freestyle (n = 1)
Long-distance speed skating (n = 1)
Orienteering (n = 8)