Table 2

 Outcome measures in 28 randomised control trials of physical treatments for lateral epicondylalgia

Outcome measuresNumber of studies
Note that several papers used more than one measure of pain.
*Measures used to calculate global improvement (relative risk) in tables 3–5.
VAS, Visual analogue scale; ADL, activities of daily living; DASH, disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire.
Pain VAS
    No mention of specifics11
    Wrist extension8
    24 hours6
    Finger extension4
    Isometric supination/pronation3
Pain and function rating scales
    Patient assessment of subjective improvement*13
    Functional VAS4
    Patient self assessment pain scale3
    Assessor’s assessment of functional impairment4
    Pain/disability questionnaire*2
    Patient assessment of duration of symptoms2
    Pain-free index2
    8 Item ADL score1
    Roles and Maudley scale*1
    Assessor’s assessment of pain VAS1
Physical evaluation
    Pain-free grip strength14
    Maximum grip strength11
    Weight test8
    Pressure pain threshold6
    Range of movement in wrist2
    Pinch strength1
    Isometric wrist extension1
    Isokinetic wrist flexion/extension1
    Manual muscle test (0–5)1
    Sympathetic nervous system indicators1
    Thermal pain threshold1
    Upper limb tension test 2b1