Table 1

 Summary of the sequential clinical measurement procedure

Patient externally rotates their arm by their sideNo measurement taken
Assessor fixes inclinometer (I1) to lateral distal humeral shaft using Velcro strapsMeasure resting abduction angle from I1 (relative to vertical)
Assessor palpates the spine of the scapula and aligns the inclinometer (I2) along the scapula spineMeasure resting scapula spine angle from I2 (relative to horizontal)
Patient abducts their arm and is instructed to stop at each of 45°, 90°, 135° and end of range abductionMeasure scapula spine angle at each abduction position using I2 (relative to horizontal) Measure end of range abduction angle using I1 (relative to vertical)