Table 2

 Physical and physiological characteristics before and after 12 weeks of training

4 km time trial (s)vV˙o2max (km/h)tlim (s)o2maxTh2ventHRmax (beats/min)
l/minml/kg/minml/kg0.75/minml/kg/min%V˙o2max
*p<0.05, **p<0.01, significantly different from before training.
vo2max, Lowest velocity associated with V˙o2max; tlim, time to exhaustion at vo2max; V˙o2max, maximal oxygen uptake; Th2vent, second ventilatory threshold or respiratory compensation threshold; HRmax, maximal heart rate.
E (n  =  10)
    Before934.2 (47.0)16.17 (1.06)312.20 (68.01)3.80 (0.53)49.84 (3.06)147.13 (10.29)38.90 (2.60)78.05 (1.87)187.50 (6.26)
    After881.0 (39.2)**17.52 (0.72)**394.2 (53.9)**4.22 (0.53)**54.73 (3.42)**162.03 (10.46)**44.71 (2.40)**81.78 (2.96)**187.88 (6.06)
S (n  =  9)
    Before931.1 (32.8)16.12 (0.50)280.89 (55.58)3.41 (0.35)50.08 (4.89)143.82 (14.18)39.08 (3.26)78.15 (2.22)190.38 (9.10)
    After908.1 (29.4)*16.38 (0.41)*326.67 (57.88)**3.69 (0.30)**53.00 (4.05)**153.09 (11.77)**42.33 (2.86)**79.92 (1.77)*191.25 (7.55)
S+E (n  =  10)
    Before929.3 (30.4)16.16 (1.02)274.90 (63.30)3.75 (0.24)51.15 (3.45)149.58 (8.20)39.63 (2.34)77.51 (1.23)187.75 (9.02)
    After886.0 (11.3)*17.48 (0.79)**346.00 (39.50)**4.20 (0.20)**56.61 (2.03)**166.05 (3.54)**45.96 (1.67)**81.19 (0.88)**188.75 (7.92)
E+S (n  =  10)
    Before932.3 (17.1)16.18 (0.91)312.70 (57.01)3.65 (0.42)51.29 (1.60)148.83 (6.53)40.25 (0.93)78.50 (1.94)187.13 (7.61)
    After852.3 (29.5)**17.86 (0.45)**417.01 (38.02)**4.16 (0.38)**58.27 (1.90)**169.24 (4.54)**48.92 (1.77)**83.97 (1.89)**188.25 (5.78)
C (n  =  9)
    Before920.8 (42.3)16.14 (0.78)253.89 (51.01)3.67 (0.34)50.65 (6.34)147.73 (17.22)38.66 (4.06)76.49 (2.25)191.25 (9.59)
    After923.83 (35.2)16.18 (0.75)247.56 (50.52)3.68 (0.28)50.51 (4.71)147.51 (12.96)38.70 (3.68)76.63 (1.86)191.63 (8.72)