Table 2

 Characteristics of studies included in the review

ReferenceParticipantsDesignType of injuryFollow up
ns, Information about analysing index and/or recurrent injury not stated; ind, only index injuries were analysed; ind/rec, index injuries and recurrent injuries were analysed; ind/rec1, index injuries and recurrent injuries longer than 6 months were analysed; ind/rec2, index injuries and recurrent injuries longer than 12 months were analysed; ind/rec¥, index injuries and recurrent injuries of grade I (considering graduation from I to III); rec, only recurrent injuries were analysed.
Gabbe et al 20049-ns122 Australian football playersProspective cohort study14 ankle sprains5 months
Arnason et al 200410-ind/rec306 soccer playersProspective cohort study20 ankle sprains4 months
Beynnon et al 20015-ind118 varsity athletesProspective cohort study20 ankle sprains2 seasons
Soderman et al 200111-ind/rec199 female soccer players (22 drop outs)Prospective cohort study28 ankle sprains (23 athletes)7 months
Leanderson et al 199612-ind/rec53 dancers + 23 active subjectsProspective cohort study6 ankle sprains19 months
Wiesler et al 199613-ind/rec148 dance studentsProspective cohort study23 ankle sprains9 months
Shambaugh et al 199114-ns45 basketball playersProspective cohort study6 ankle sprains4 months
Ekstrand/Gillquist 198315-ind/rec180 soccer playersProspective cohort study43 ankle sprains12 months
Payne et al 199716-ind/rec142 basketball playersProspective cohort study8 ankle injuries2.1 months
Tropp et al 19847-ind/rec127 soccer playersProspective cohort study23 ankle injuries12 months
Willems et al 200517-ind/rec¥159 female physical education studentsProspective cohort study32 inversion ankle sprains12–36 months
Willems et al 200518-ind/rec¥241 male physical education studentsProspective cohort study44 inversion ankle sprains12–36 months
McGuine et al 200019-ind/rec2210 high school basketball playersProspective cohort study20 inversion sprain12 months
Pope et al 19986-ind/rec1093 army recruitsRandomised clinical trial27 lateral ankle sprains2.57 months
Baumhauer et al 19954-ind/rec¥145 lacrosse, soccer or field hockey athletesProspective cohort study15 lateral ankle sprains12 months
Hopper et al 199520-ns72 netball playersProspective cohort study8 lateral ankle sprain14 weeks
Milgrom et al 199121-ind/rec390 infantry recruitsProspective cohort study69 lateral ankle sprains14 weeks
Holme et al 199922-rec92 recreational athletes (67 followed up)Randomised clinical trial13 recurrences12 months
Eiff et al 1994 23-rec77 patientsRandomised clinical trial6 recurrences12 months
Watson et al 199924-ns80 Gaelic football and hurling athletesProspective cohort study122 ankle sprains48 months
Twellaar et al 199725-ns136 studentsProspective cohort studyNot stated48 months