Table 4

 Types and proportions of match stoppages because of musculoskeletal stress

Mechanism of match stoppagePercentage of matches ±95% CI (n = 642 matches)
Less than 2% of match stoppages were because of soft tissue trauma and unobserved joint injuries—that is, competitor apparently disabled, but mechanism not captured on video.
*Hypermobilisation of joint through forceful distraction, hyperextension, and/or rotational manipulation.
†Forceful manipulation of opponent’s head on neck.
CI, Confidence interval.
Elbow lock*9.3±2.2
Ankle lock*2.0±1.0
Shoulder lock*1.7±1.0
Knee lock*0.9±0.7
Neck crank†0.6±0.6