Table 2

 Characteristics and results of included descriptive epidemiological studies

Study*Study designStudy populationInjury definitionGeneral incidenceUpper ext (%)Lower ext (%)Trunk/head (%)Type of injury reportedSeverity
*First author and reference number.
ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ; d, days; ext, extremity; F, female; I/D, indoor; inj, injury; h, hours; m, months; M, male; NR, not reported; O/D, outdoor; OPD, outpatient department; PF, patellofemoral joint; wk, weeks; y, years.
Vriend104Cross sectional study: telephone interviews, with recall period of 3 m (2000–2004)General population: in each of the 5 y, 10 000 people were interviewed, of whom ∼50% were sports participantsAll acute and chronic injuries or ailments that developed as a result of or during sports participation in the past 3 m1.1/1000 h: O/D 0.9/1000 h; I/D 1.6/1000 h29.153.610.2 (not defined 3.7)NR52% required medical treatment (O/D 49%, I/D 59%, NS)
Jayanthi105Cross sectional, questionnaire; recall period 1 y140 M, 388 F recreational league players (International Tennis Number 3 to 8); mean age 46.9 yAny injury or pain the player had experienced in the past 12 m preventing play for ⩾7 d3.0 inj/1000 h; prevalence 52.9 inj/100 players41493Overuse injuries predominated, most in upper extremityNR
Kühne106Prospective study, follow up 6 months60 competitive, 50 recreational players; C range 16–35 y, mean 25; R range 40–68 y, mean 53The injuries and problems that the player experienced during the tennis season1.5 inj/player/y256411Cramps, strains, and sprains were most common3.3% of acute and 2.2% of chronic injuries were eventually operated
Da Silva107Prospective study with 1 y follow up; all medical treatments required during tournamentElite junior players, participating in the national circuit in Brazil in the <12, <14, <16, and <18 age categoriesAny consultation and/or treatment given to a player during a tournament on site6.9 medical treatment/1000 games playedNRNRNRCramps (muscle contracture) were most commonNR
LIS 1999–2003108Prospective study of injuries treated at the first aid department of 15 selected hospitals in NetherlandsGeneral population; 7700 tennis playersInjuries requiring treatment at the first aid department of the hospital0.04 inj/1000 h285913Acute, more severe type of injuries; sprains most common (59%)Costs per injury €830; 5% hospitalised for an average of 5 d
Schmikli109Cross sectional study: telephone interviews; recall periods 1 month (1986–87), 1 month (1992–93), and 3 months (1997–98)General population, 1982–83; 67 139 persons, of whom 31 688 played sportsInjuries or ailments newly developed as a result of or during sports participation in the past 4 wk (3 m); chronic injuries not recorded1986–87: I/D 1.8/1000 h; O/D 1.2/1000 h; 1992–93: I/D 2.9/1000 h; O/D 1.2/1000 h; 1997–98: I/D 1.0/1000 h; O/D 0.5/1000 hNRNRNRNRMedical treatment required: O/D, 27%, 34%, and 39% of injuries; I/D, 57%, 60%, and 66%
Sallis110Retrospective cohort study of injury reports compiled by athletic trainers with a 15 y follow up periodCollege players; range 18–22 y; 3767 participants, divided over sports, including tennisMedical problem as a result of sport participation requiring visit to training room0.456 M; 0.425 F per player/y23.1 M; 21.9 F62.2 M; 70.7 F14.6 M; 7.2 FNRNo ACL injuries, otherwise NR
Steinbrück111Prospective longitudinal study with 25 y follow up; visits to sports orthopaedic and trauma OPDGeneral population; 1257 M and 858 F tennis playersNot defined: any medical problem that required a visit to the sports medicine clinic was registered as an injuryNR216019Knee 25%; ankle 23%NR
Weijermans112Prospective cohort study of 46 tennis clubs; follow up 6 months (O/D tennis season); injuries reported to contact person179 club playersTennis related problem resulting in loss of practice or match time, need for medical consultation, or negative social/economic consequences (absence from school/work)0.11/1000 hNR67NRMostly acute injuries; tennis leg and sprained ankle most commonFor the 5 most common injuries, 60% needed medical consultation, and 20% absence from school/work
Hutchinson113Prospective cohort study, with follow up of 6 y1440 male participants at the USTA National Boys Championships 1986–1988; 1990–1992Any medical problem requiring physical or medical assistance21.5/1000 athletic exposures; 9.9/100 players265122Sprains 58%One athlete transported to hospital for heat exhaustion
Baxter-Jones114Prospective cohort study156 elite players in five 2-y age groups from 8–16 yAny injury resulting in discontinuation of training and/or medical treatment0.52 inj/player/yNRNRNROsteochondrosis 26%Acute injuries 13 d lay-off time; chronic injuries 20 d
Lanese115Prospective cohort study12 M, 11 F college players, 18–22 yTraumatic medical problem due to sports participation resulting in time loss from practice or competition1.6 inj/1000 h (M); 1.0 inj/1000 h (F), p = 0.37NRNRNRNR2.42 (0.57) disability d per 100 person h
Winge116Prospective study, follow up 6 months (O/D tennis season)Elite players: 61 M, mean age 28 y; 28 F, mean age 22 yEvery problem that appeared in connection with tennis, handicapped the player during play, and/or required special treatment0.52 inj/player/season; 2.3 inj/1000 h (M 2.7, F 1.1)45.73911Shoulder injuries 17%Mean injury period 44.5 d; absence from work practically 0
Krause117Cross sectional78 M + 49 elite players, age range 15–46 yNR0.7 inj/player/y36.444.319.3Shoulder, back, and ankle 85%NR
Chard118Longitudinal study, 8 y follow up; visits to sports medicine clinic78 M + 53 recreational players, age range 8–66 yMedical problem related to tennis that required a visit to the sports injury clinic (self referral for acute injuries; referral by GP for chronic injuries)NR354520PF problems 44%; acute injuries 70%, chronic injuries 30%NR
Reece119Retrospective cohort study: injuries requiring attention of medical officer or physiotherapist24 M + 21 F elite players at Australian Institute of Sport, aged 16–20 y, mean 17.6Any injury that required attention from the medical officer or physiotherapist2.5 inj player/y (M); 2.9 inj/player/y (F)205921Ankle sprain most common, followed by calf and quadriceps strain2 conditions required surgical intervention
Von Salis-Soglio120Cross sectional study: interview and medical examination15 elite M players, 1–15 in German National ranking; mean age 28 y; range 15–43NRNRNRNRNRShoulder and elbow problems (tennis elbow) most commonSmall risk for long term problems
Von Krämer121Retrospective study, follow up 17.5 y100 M and 26 F recreational players, mean age 43 yComplaints and diseases which resulted from playing tennisNR47.531.116.6Tennis elbow 39%; Achilles tendon 15%)NR
Biener122–124Cross sectional203 M, 72 F high level competitive players; mean age 28 yNR0.05 inj/player/y48.643.4%2/6Tennis elbow 36%; sprains 21%; strains 14%NR