Table 3

 Characteristics and results of included analytic epidemiological studies

Study*Study designStudy populationRisk factorsOutcomesAdjustment for confoundersResults
Only statistically significant results are reported.
*First author and reference number.
CI, confidence interval; m, months; OA, osteoarthritis; OR, odds ratio; PF, patellofemoral; TF, tibiofemoral.
Llana137Cross sectional studyA sample of 146 tennis players in Spain selected from a sample of 4000 who had completed a questionnaire on “discomfort” associated with tennis shoesPerceived design errorsDiscomfortNoSignificant correlation (p = 0.02) between incorrect arch support and plantar discomfort
Spector135Retrospective cohort study81 female ex-elite athletes (67 middle and long distance runners, and 14 tennis players), aged 40–65, recruited from original playing records, and 977 age matched female controls from London UKLong term weight bearing sports activityOA as defined by radiological changes (joint space narrowing and osteophytes) in hip joints, PF joints, and TF jointsYesThe ex-athletes had greater rates of radiological OA at all sites. This association was strongest for the presence of osteophytes at the TF joints (OR = 3.57 (95% CI, 1.89 to 6.71)), at the PF joints (OR = 3.50 (1.80 to 6.81)), narrowing at the PF joints (OR = 2.97 (1.15 to 7.67)), femoral osteophytes (OR = 2.52 (1.01 to 6.26)), and hip joint narrowing (OR = 1.60 (0.73 to 3.48)), and was weakest for narrowing at the TF joints (OR = 1.17 (0.71 to 1.94)). The tennis players tended to have more osteophytes at the TF joints and hip
Nigg136Prospective cohort study (2 m follow up)171 members of tennis clubsShoe, temperature, type and duration of match play, subjective assessment of shoe comfort, sole grip and lateral stabilityPainNoStiffness of shoe and subjective evaluation of frictional properties of the shoe were significantly associated with pain