Table 5

 Pathological changes involving lower extremity physes in young athletes

StudyNo of subjectsAge (years)ActivityRadiographic changes
The sex of the patients is indicated: M, male; F, female.
MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging.
Cahill1121 M15.5Long distance runningWidening of proximal tibial growth plate with metaphyseal bone separation
Percy1131 M16Long distance runningWidening of first metatarsal growth plate with metaphyseal separation
Godshall1142 M14.5Running during basketball or football trainingWidening and a loss of normal architecture of the distal femoral growth plate
Weber1151 M15TennisWidening of the distal femoral growth plate with metaphyseal bone separation
Liebling1161 M13Baseball (catcher)Physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity in parts of the proximal tibias and distal parts of the femurs
Wall1171 F11GymnasticsKnee MRI revealed severe widening of the proximal tibial growth plate
Wall11818 M/F11.3Soccer, baseball, footballMild growth plate widening in two cases, although all subjects had chronic ankle pain and tenderness to palpation localised to the distal tibial/fibular growth plates
Sato1191 F13BasketballPremature closure of the lateral side of the right proximal tibial growth plate
Nanni1201 M15Rugby ball kickingWide separation of the proximal tibial epiphysis, asymmetrically affecting the medial side more than the lateral side
Laor1216 (3M; 3F)12.3Basketball, football place kicking, gymnastics, tennis, soccer, footballMRI findings showing widening of the distal femoral and/or proximal tibial growth plates