Table 1

 Summary of assessed studies on ethnic differences in skeletal age and chronological age

AuthorCountryYear of publicationSize of populationAgeEthnic groupConclusion
AA, African Americans; BMI, body mass index; CA, chronological age; EA, European Americans; SA, skeletal age.
EuropeHelmDenmark197938177–18Danish school childrenGood correlation with TW2 standard. Differences observed in adolescents
JimenexSpain19962391–14SpainGood correlation with US (G&P) standards
van RijnHolland20015735–20HollandGood correlation with G&P standards
KocTurkey20012257–17TurkeyFaster development in age group 14–17 years. G&P standards list completely applicable to Turkish boys
BensoItaly19974077–12ItalyGood correlation with TW2 standards, positive correlation between SA progression and BMI
Sub-Saharan AfricaLewisMalawi20021392–28Sub-Saharan AfricaSA was lower than CA in comparison with G&P standards
South AmericaGuimareyBrazil/Argentina20032051–17Brazil/ArgentinaGood correlation with TW2 standards
AsiaZhenChina19865727–17Northern ChinaFaster maturation than TW2 standards.
MurataJapan199710756–16Metropolitan area of TokyoChildren attain maturity 1–2 years earlier than Europeans (TW2 method)
YeChina199222222–40South ChinaBoys aged 12–17 years and girls aged 10–15 years are ahead of skeletal maturity by TW2 standards
North AmericaLoderUSA19938410–18461 black, 380 whiteBlack girls’ SA advanced by 0.4–0.7 years. In black and white boys in adolescence age 0.4–0.5 years advanced on SA (compared with G&P)
OntellUSA19967650–18White, black, Asian, HispanicIn adolescence, black girls mature faster by 10 months, hispanic girls by 9 months, black adolescent boys by 5 months, Asian boys by 11 months and white boys behind by 4–8 months (G&P standards)
MoraUSA20015340–19260 EA, 274 AAEA post pubescent boys had advanced SA compared with G&P standards and also advanced skeletal maturation when compared with AA.