Table 1

 Diagnostic methods used in the clinical examination of 207 consecutive athletes with groin pain

RegionDiagnostic methods
Groin area in generalInspection and palpation21
Iliopsoas and rectus femorisPalpation,42 testing against resistance,22 Thomas’ test for flexibility and pain with passive stretching,23,42 and extension test for snapping psoas24
Sartorius and quadriceps femorisPalpation and testing against resistance23
Adductors and rectus abdominisPalpation of muscle bellies, tendons and insertions, testing against resistance and test for flexibility and pain with passive stretching23,25,42
PiriformisPalpation, and test for flexibility and pain with passive stretching23
Area above the inguinal ligament and the inguinal canalInspection, palpation for tenderness and/or a cough impulse, in the standing and lying positions26–28
SpineRange of motion, palpation, skin-rolling test and springing test29,30
Sacroiliac jointsPatrick’s test, Gillet’s test, sacroiliac joint shear test and forward-bending test30–32
Hip jointsRange of motion and pain in the positions of maximal range of motion
PelvisPalpation of pubic symphysis,42 arches and tubercles
NeurologySensibility test, palpation for nerve entrapment33–36
OthersPalpation of the prostate,37–39 scrotum, sacrotuberal ligament40 and pelvic floor41