Table 2

 Diagnostic criteria used in the examination of 207 consecutive athletes with groin pain

Clinical entityDiagnostic criteria
Adductor-related painPalpatory pain at the muscle origin at the pubic bone and pain with adduction against resistance
Iliopsoas-related painPalpatory pain of the muscle through the lower lateral part of the abdomen and/or just distal of the inguinal ligament and pain with passive stretching during Thomas’ test
Rectus abdominis-related painPalpatory pain of the distal tendon and/or the insertion at the pubic bone, and pain at contraction against resistance
Snapping iliopsoasA painful snapping in the groin when extending the maximally flexed hip and visible snapping with ultrasonography
Piriformis-related painPalpatory pain and pain with passive stretching
Pelvic floor-related painPalpatory tenderness of the edge of the muscles posteriorly, and painful contraction of the muscles
Sacrotuberal ligament painPalpatory pain of the ligament, both through the gluteal region and through the rectum
Sacroiliac joint dysfunctionPositive Gillet’s test and/or forward-bending test and pain with the Patrick’s test and/or the sacroiliac shear test
Pain of thoracolumbar originPain at the level of thoracic segment 10 to lumbar segment 1 with the skin-rolling test, and the facet joint palpation and the springing test
Hip arthrosisRadiological signs of arthrosis, subchondral sclerosis, subchondral cysts, narrowed joint space and osteophytes
Stress fractureBone scintigraphic signs of a stress fracture and palpatory pain at the corresponding anatomical site
HerniaThe presence of a visible and/or palpable inguinal mass and/or when a massive cough impulse was present
Sports herniaNo hernia present (as described above) as well as tenderness of the external inguinal ring and tenderness in the area of the conjoint tendon and close to its insertion at the pubic tubercle