Table 3 Outline of included studies
StudyInclusion score (%)ParticipantsFoot type definitionInjury definitionOutcomes
Busseuil et al 1998286766 Ath (50M; 16 F) age 34 (SD 10) yrs15 TSI.M/con (n = 216).ST, DN: pressure analysis, rearfoot:forefoot angle (α)NSLower static rearfoot:forefoot angles (a more pronated foot) in those with TSI
Ekenman et al 1996255629 Ath with TSF (11M; 18F) age NS M/con (n = 30).DN: pressure analysis, tarsal region during gaitRadiography or bone scintigramsSimilar occurrence of HA in both TSF and M/con (approx 30%)
Kaufman et al 19992778449M Mil. age 22.5 (SD 2.5) yrsf/u 24 mo. 29 TSF.ST: navicular height:foot lengthRadiography or nuclear bone scanIncreased risk ratios associated with both PC and PP feet
DN: pressure analysis, midfoot:total foot contact area
Korpelainen et al 2001296131 Ath (19M; 12F) age 20yrsST: subjective classification based on footprint analysis (PC/normal/PP)Radiography or bone scintigramsTSF 40% HA, control 13% HA
45 TSF M/con (n = 15)
Matheson et al 1987361320 Ath (145M; 175F) age NS.157 TSF.ST: subjective classification (PC/normal/PP)Triple bone scanTSF approx 53% PP, approx 2% PC
Montgomery et al 19891561505M Mil, age 22 (SD 3) yrsf/u 6mo. 27 TSFST: subjective classification (PC/normal/PP)Clinical examination20% TSF were PP. 0% TSF had PC
Simkin et al 19891967295M Mil. (age NS) f/u 3.5 mo. 286 TSFST: calcaneal angle measured from lateral radiographsRadiography or bone scintigramsTSF incidence of 9.8% in the LA group compared to 17.3% in HA group
Taunton et al 2002265667 Ath with TSF (27M; 40F) age 32.3 (SD NS) yrs M/con not available.ST: subjective classification (HA/normal/LA)Appropriate imaging modalities (NS)PP 11% and PC 7% in those with TSF
Williams et al 2001306120HA age 28 (SD 8.1) yrs, 20LA age 27.7 (SD 7.5) yrsAth 18M; 22F. 6 TSFST: arch ratio (dorsum height/truncated foot length)Clinical examination, injury history questionnaire50% more TSF observed in the high arched group
  • Ath, athletes; DN, dynamic measurements; f/u, follow-up period; F, female; HA, high arched; LA, low arched; M, male; M/con, matched control; Mil, military recruits; mo, months; NS, not specified; PC, pes cavus; PP, pes planus; ST, static measurements; TSF, tibial stress fractures; TSI, tibial stress injuries.