Table 4 Summary of articles pulled for review by the authors: rotator cuff integrity
Test, author [ref] and yearSample sizeSensitivity/specificityLR+/LR−QUADAS scoreCriterion standard
Supraspinatus/Jobe empty can test
Park et al25 2005552 patients53/823.0/0.5710Surgery
Boileau et al31 200421 patients81/NRNR/NR10Surgery
Holtby & Razmjou27 200450 patients41/701.4/0.8413Surgery
Litaker et al32 2000448 patients64/651.8/0.5510Double-contrast arthrography
Itoi et al35 1999143 shoulders89/9845/0.118Surgery & MRI
Hertel et al28 199687 patients84/542.0/0.287Surgery
Leroux et al26 199555 patients86/501.7/0.2810Surgery
Lift-off test
Barth et al34 200668 shoulders18/922.3/0.8911Surgery
Scheibel et al38 200512 patients58/NRNR/NR6Surgery & MRI
Hertel et al28 199653 patients62/9831/0.397Surgery
Leroux et al26 199555 patients17/600.43/1.3810Surgery
Gerber & Krushell36 199113 patients92/NRNR/NR9Surgery
Speed/Gilcreest palm-up test
Park et al25 2005552 patients40/751.6/0.8010Surgery
Boileau et al31 200421 patients48/NRNR/NR10Surgery
Leroux et al26 199555 patients63/350.97/1.0510Surgery
Neer test
Park et al25 2005552 patients59/471.1/0.8710Surgery
MacDonald et al22 200085 patients83/511.7/0.338Surgery
Hawkins−Kennedy test
Park et al25 2005552 patients69/481.3/0.6510Surgery
MacDonald et al22 200085 patients88/431.5/0.288Surgery
External rotation lag sign
Walch et al37 199854 patients7Surgery
Teres minor95/723.4/0.07
Hertel et al28 199687 patients69/9835/0.327Surgery
Internal rotation lag sign
Scheibel et al38 200512 patients75/NRNR/NR6Surgery & MRI
Hertel et al28 199653 patients97/9624/0.037Surgery
Rent test
Wolf & Agrawal30 2001109 patients96/9732/0.0410Surgery
Lyons & Tomlinson 199242 patients73/662.2/0.416Surgery
Napoleon sign
Barth et al34 200668 shoulders25/9813/0.7711Surgery
Scheibel et al38 200516 patients69/NRNR/NR6Surgery & MRI
Drop arm
Park et al25 2005552 patients35/882.9/0.7410Surgery
Murrell & Walton33 2001400 patients10/985.0/0.925Surgery
Other tests
Litaker et al32 2000 − supine impingement sign448 patients97/91.07/0.3310Double contrast arthrography
Hertel et al28 1996 − drop sign87 patients21/922.6/0.867Surgery
Park et al25 2005 − infraspinatus test552 patients51/843.2/0.5810Surgery
Park et al25 2005 − cross-body adduction552 patients23/811.2/0.9510Surgery
Park et al25 2005 − painful arc552 patients76/622.0/0.3910Surgery
Barth et al34 2006 − bear-hug test68 shoulders60/927.5/0.3211Surgery
Barth et al34 2006 − belly press test68 shoulders40/9820/0.6111Surgery
Itoi et al35 1999 − full-can test143 shoulders86/572/0.258Surgery & MRI
Walch et al37 1998 − hornblower's sign54 patients95/9212/0.057Surgery
Scheibel et al 200538 − belly-off test16 patients38/NRNR/NR6Surgery & MRI
  • Note: the same study may have different numbers of sample size based on how many subjects received the OST.

  • For the Scheibel et al study, two groups were combined to report the sensitivity of the OSTs for any rotator cuff tear, whether partial or complete.