Table 6 Summary of articles pulled for review by the authors: anterior instability
Test, author [ref] and yearSample sizeSensitivity/ SpecificityLR+/LR−QUADAS scoreCriterion standard
Relocation/Jobe relocation test
Farber et al61 2006363 patientsPain 30/903.0/0.7711Surgery
App. 81/9210.4/0.20
Lo et al 200459*46 patientsEither pain or app. 46/541.0/0.9910Combination of clinical exam and radiographs
Speer et al60 1994100 patientsPain 54/440.96/1.010Surgery
App. 67/9967/0.33
Apprehension
Farber et al61 2006363 patientsPain 50/561.1/0.8911Surgery
App. 72/9620.2/0.29
Lo et al 200459*46 patientsEither pain or app. 53/9953/0.4710Combination of clinical exam and radiographs
Anterior release/surprise test
Lo et al 200459*46 patientsEither pain or app. 64/9958.6/0.3710Combination of clinical exam and radiographs
Gross & Distefano62 1997100 patientsPain 92/898.3/0.099Surgery and examination under anaesthesia
Other tests
Farber et al61 2006 – anterior drawer test363 patientsPain 28/710.97/1.011Surgery
App. 53/853.6/0.57
Anterior-superior instability with an anterior supraspinatus tear (SLAC lesion)
Savoie et al63 2001 – load and shift test40 patients98/NRNR/NR9Surgery
Savoie et al63 2001 – anterior-superior SLAP test40 patients95/NRNR/NR9Surgery
Savoie et al63 2001 – active compression/ O’Brien test40 patients88/NRNR/NR9Surgery
Savoie et al63 2001 – Kibler test40 patients93/NRNR/NR9Surgery
Savoie et al63 2001 – Whipple test40 patients100/NRNR/NR9Surgery
  • App., apprehension.

  • *The values from the Lo et al study represent the mean of four examiners.