Table 2 Biological roles and relative increase (multiplication factor) from baseline of growth factors derived from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous conditioned serum (ACS) technique compared with concentrations in whole blood (ABI)
PlateletsBloodInitial control of haemorrhage, release GF at injury site3–868N/A (serum contains no platelets)
PDGFPlateletsStimulates cell replication, angiogenesis, mitogen for fibroblasts145–299 20No difference26 29
VEGFPlateletsAngiogenesis346–52.78 9No data
TGF-β1PlateletsKey regulator in balance between fibrosis and myocyte regeneration4 353.5–278 9 201.326 29
FGFPlateletsSimulates proliferation of myoblasts, angiogenesis1 8 12"detected"97.526 29
EGFPlateletsProliferation of mesenchymal & epithelial cells, potentiation of other GFs3638No data
HGFPlasmaAngiogenesis, mitogen for endothelial cells,21 anti-fibrotic10No increase from baseline221.326
IGF-1Plasma/liverStimulates myoblasts & fibroblasts, mediator in growth & repair of skeletal muscle35 37No increase from baseline8 9 22 25No difference26
  • EGF, epidermal growth factor; GF, growth factor; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PRP, platelet-rich plasma; TGF-β1, transforming growth factor beta-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.