Table 3 Summary of studies using growth factor application methods in animal and human trials of tendon, ligament and muscle healing
TechniqueSpeciesTissue typeStudy detailsResultsType
ABIAnimalTendonNo harmful effectsCrossover
HumanTendonEdwards 200328—lateral epicondylitis79% patients complete pain reliefCohort
LigamentConnell 200627—medial epicondylitisNo pain at 6 months
Connell 200627—lateral epicondylitis
ACSAnimalMuscleWright-Carpenter 200426— mice gastrocnemiusIncreased satellite cells & myofibresControlled trial
HumanMuscleWright-Carpenter 200429— human skeletal muscleImproved recovery 22.3 vs. 16.6 daysControlled trial
PRPAnimalTendonAspenberg 200433–rat Achilles tendon rupture30% improved strength at 1 weekCohort
MuscleCarda 200532—skeletal muscle tearsImproved healing at 6 daysCohort
HumanTendonMishra 20067—elbow tendinopathy60%↓ VAS at 8/52 vs. 16%↓ controlControlled trial
LigamentSanchez 200538—Achilles tendon ruptureFull recovery 14 vs. 21 weeksCase report
Sanchez 200721—Achilles tendon ruptureNon-randomised trial
MuscleSanchez 200539Full recovery in half the time of controlsCase series
SuraminAnimalMuscleChan 200531–mice gastrocnemius↓Scar tissue ↑Tetanic strengthControlled trial
RelaxinAnimalMuscleNegishi 200640—mice skeletal muscle↓FibrosisCrossover
↑Myofibre regeneration
  • ABI, autologous blood injections; ACS, autologous conditioned serum; PRP, platelet-rich plasma.